Annotated Bibliography Hamnes

Griggs, Brandon. "Should the U.S. lower its drinking age?" CNN. 15 January 2015

This article is about the views of scholarly people who feel the drinking age should be lowered. First, the author states that Brown University Anthropology Professor, Dwight B Heath believes that if we should have a cultural model, common in countries like France or Italy, where children serve small amounts of wine to their children at family meals. "By doing this, he says, parent's would educate their kids about alcohol and rob drinking of its taboo allure, which can make rebellious teenagers sneak off to basements and backwoods to binge drink far from adult supervision." "In general, the younger people start to drink the safer they are," said Heath, who has written several books and hundreds of scholarly articles on cultural attitudes towards alcohol. When introduced early, he said, "Alcohol has no mystique. It's no big deal. By contrast, where it's banned until age 21, there's something of the 'forbidden fruit' syndrome." This article also states that having the drinking age at 21 has increased binge drinking at college campuses drastically. The author also uses the views of Lawmakers in a handful of states who believe it should be lowered and the president of the University of the South in Sewanee, Tennessee, John McCardell Jr. "It's taking place behind closed doors, where it's much more dangerous. It's unsupervised," he said. "It's out of step with social reality." He argues that colleges should be given the chance to educate students on how to drink responsibly, within campus boundaries and out in the open.

This article is current, I could not find the date it was originally published but it was updated in January, 2015. It has functioning links. The intended audience would be people who read CNN articles, or anyone who is interested in hearing views on why the drinking age should be lowered. The author of the article is Brandon Griggs, Senior Producer at CNN digital. Based on Griggs other articles, I would say that he's a credible author. The purpose of this article was to inform people on some of the benefits of lowering the drinking age.

This article had some good points on why we should re-think the drinking age, and provided credible sources to back it up. I think this article was a good addition to my research, it includes a lot of quotes from scholarly people who think a change needs to be made.

Geltman, Elizabeth. "Lower the Drinking Age Back to 18: We Don't Have Students Teach Each Other to Drive, Why Is Alcohol Different?" Huffington Post. 17 February 2015.

In this article, a Professor of Public Health and a parent states how the way things were when she was growing up, when the drinking age was 18, was a better way than how it is now. She states that in her day, learning how to drink socially and responsibly, was an at least partially supervised college experience. "Students would drink with faculty and staff, who could model appropriate alcohol-related behavior." She also stated that on campus drinking was out in the open, and that the bartender at her campus pub would watch the crowd and cut off students who had overdone it. While she worked as a resident adviser, she learned that many alcohol-related dangers occurred in large, drunken, unsupervised events. Many were frat parties. Where, if the drinking age wasn't 21, you could be in a safer environment, and have a few with your friends without trying to hide it. "Lowering the drinking age will mean that half the campus (the youngest, least adapted, first-time-away-from-home half) is not required to hide their activity because it is illegal. And college campuses could then sponsor events that encourage appropriate use of alcohol, rather than just lecture about poor, illegal use."

This article is current, and has functioning links. The intended audience would be people who read blogs about debatable topics, perhaps older people who could relate to her and know what she means by how in their college or teenage years in general, they learned how to drink more responsibly without having to hide it. I would say the Geltman is credible, she is an Associate Professor & Program Director, Environmental & Occupational Health Sciences at Hunter College & CUNY School of Public Health. The purpose of her writing this article would be to inform the public that we should take a stand to try to lower the drinking age.

This article is a good addition to my research, she gives a good perspective on the college life then and now, having been in college when the drinking age was 18, and now having kids in college with the drinking age higher.

Cary, Mary. "Lowering the drinking age will prevent unsafe binge drinking." U.S. News. 7 May 2014.

This article states how lowering the drinking age could prevent a lot of unsafe events from occuring. The author states how in her day, there was no need for “pregaming” – binge drinking in private apartments or dorms before heading out in public. She remembers how they used to be able to have kegs out in the open on campus grounds and university police would regularly stroll through the fraternity parties, making sure everything was under control. She states how while a lot of people believe that changing the drinking age to 21 is the reason why drunk driving has decreases, she believes its in large part because the U.S. has thrown the book at drunken drivers. "All 50 states currently define a driver’s having a blood-alcohol concentration of 0.08 or higher as a crime; 42 states suspend drivers’ licenses on the first offense. Every state also now has some type of ignition interlock law, requiring devices to be installed in the vehicles of convicted drunken drivers that prevent a vehicle from starting if the driver breathes into the device and produces a breath-alcohol level above a preset limit." The U.S. is one of only seven nations in the entire world with a drinking age of 21. She also believes that the reason why so many college kids are now taking prescription drugs is, along with binge drinking, part of the epidemic of pregaming. She states that because of binge drinking and drug abuse, there has been many sexual assaults and a culture where dangerous drinking has become the rule and not the exception. "I’d rather see my kids sipping beer out of a red Solo cup at a well-patrolled fraternity party than drinking shots and popping a Vicodin in someone’s basement off campus. Lowering the drinking age will help slow the need for pregaming and bring the college fake ID business to a dead stop. It can’t help but reduce the binge drinking, drug overdoses and sexual assaults."

This article is current, and has functioning links. The intended audience would be people who read U.S. News, or political people since she has worked in the White House. Mary Kate Cary is a very credible author in my opinion she is a former White House speechwriter for President George H.W. Bush. She currently writes speeches for political and business leaders, and is a contributing editor for U.S. News & World Report. The purpose of this article was to inform and state that we need to make a change to better the society in college campuses.

This article has helped strengthen my argument on why the drinking age should be lowered. The author is credible and it is a legitimate source to provide evidence on my claim.

Steinberg, Laurence. "Lower the Drinking Age to 19." The New York Times. 10 February 2015.

In this article, a College Professor who studies adolescent brain development explains why he believes the drinking age should be lowered to 19. He stated that pretty much the rest of the developed world sets the minimum drinking age at 18. The main reasoning for people thinking we should leave the age at 21 is due to reducing the traffic accidents, but Steinberg states that if that's the main concern, we’d accomplish much more by raising the driving age. "Having a drinking age of 21 has put colleges and universities in the difficult position of having to police a population of drinkers, half of whom are legally permitted to drink, and half of whom are not." "This leads to an enormous amount of illegal drinking on campus, which in turn leads to drinking in unregulated and unmonitored settings, where problem drinking is all too easy. A fraternity president can look the other way when someone funnels a bottle of vodka; a bartender will not — or if he does, he won’t be in business very long."

This article is current, and has functioning links. The intended audience would be people who read The New York Times and people who want to read more on the topic. Laurence Steinberg is a professor of psychology at Temple University and is the author of “Age of Opportunity: Lessons From the New Science of Adolescence.” The purpose of this article was to state his opinion on the subject.

This article provides me with some more useful information for my argument and the author is credible.

Carpenter, Christopher; Dobkin, Carlos. "The Minimum Legal Drinking Age and Public Health." PMC: US National Library of Medicine. Spring 2011.

In this paper, the authors summarize evidence which shows that one of the central claims of the Amethyst Initiative is incorrect: setting the minimum legal drinking age at 21 clearly reduces alcohol consumption and its major harms. They use evidence to determine what they think the drinking age should be. First, they try to determine the age best for Economic reasons. They conclude that it's impossible to obtain credible estimates of these key parameters for every age, because the minimum drinking age hasn't been lower than 21 since the 1930s. They also looked at a graph of deaths by motor vehicle during night-time for before and after the drinking age was raised. And while the deaths did drop, they don't believe it was because of the drinking age because it was already dropping before it was raised. At the end of their paper they state that "a lower drinking age might be combined with other policies like mandatory alcohol licensing (similar to driver licensing) and relevant, reality-based alcohol education, both of which are advocated by the Choose Responsibility group. Although the research summarized here convinces us that an earlier drinking age alone would increase alcohol-related harms, we do not think there is enough evidence to evaluate the effectiveness of alcohol education and alcohol licensing, either in isolation or in combination with a lower minimum drinking age."

This article is current, and has functioning links. The intended audience would be people who read PMC and people who are interested in public health or want in depth statistics about the drinking age. Both of the authors are Associate Professors of Economics. The purpose of this article was to inform the public.

This paper provides me with a few more good arguments and is a credible site for me to look back on if I need to.

Daniloff, Caleb. "Drinking: 18 vs. 21." BU.edu 21 October 2010.

This article talks about both sides of the argument and has quotes from both sides. In 2007, former Middlebury College President John McCardell founded Choose Responsibility (CR), a nonprofit group devoted to spreading awareness of the dangers of excessive and reckless alcohol consumption by young adults. CR’s main goal is to lower the drinking age to 18, combined with better education about alcohol use. They argue that the current law has driven underage boozing underground and into dangerous territory. MADD claims the higher drinking age is responsible for a decline in annual alcohol-related deaths, from 26,173 in 1982 to 16,885 in 2005, as counted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). Opponents point out that the NHTSA’s definition of “alcohol-related deaths” includes all fatalities involving any measurable amount of alcohol in any person involved, including pedestrians. They also note that highway design, vehicle safety, and seat-belt use have markedly improved since the 1980s. In 2008, Choose Responsibility launched the Amethyst Initiative, a movement of university and college presidents calling for a reconsideration of the law. BU Today also had an interview with the current President of CR, Seaman. One of the questions was: What led you to decide that Age 21 was the right or wrong direction for this country? And Seaman replied, "When I began researching binge drinking on American college campuses—Harvard, Dartmouth, Middlebury, Hamilton, UVA, Duke, Indiana, Wisconsin, Berkeley, Stanford, Pomona—I was struck by the unanimity of the culture on these campuses that seems to revolve around heavy, dangerous, determinative drinking, where people set out to get drunk and the whole notion of pregaming and doing shots in the dorm room. The sort of clandestine behavior I just didn’t remember from my days in college, which were definitely a long time ago. But back in the ’60s, when the drinking age in New York, where I went to school, was 18, we didn’t feel a need to do that stuff because it was legal." "Another part of my eureka moment was when I visited McGill University. As you know, McGill is in Montreal, where the drinking age is 18, but they also have, in any given year, 2,000 Americans enrolled as undergraduates. I wanted to see how the Americans there behaved as compared to their compatriots in American schools. And I was really struck by the relative civility I found up at McGill. It just wasn’t a big deal. They could go down to the bars in Montreal and drink or go to the clubs or they could have a case of beer delivered to their dorm rooms. It was an open culture."

This article is current and has functioning links. The intended audience would be people from Boston University or read BU Today. Also, people who are interested in hearing both sides of the argument. The purpose of this article is to inform the public on both sides of the argument.

This article is a good addition to my research and will definitely help me a lot in my argument.

Engs, Ruth C. "Why the drinking age should be lowered: An opinion based upon research." Indiana University Scholar Works 1997. Web. 2014

This essay describes the reasons why the drinking age should be lowered based upon research. The current law is unenforceable and has caused increased personal, social, academic and physical problems related to heavy and irresponsible drinking among college age youth. The author states that the drinking age should be 18 or 19, and young adults should be allowed to drink in controlled environments such as restaurants, taverns, pubs and official school and university functions. In these situations responsible drinking could be taught through role modeling and educational programs. She states that the majority of college students under 21 still drink and in an irresponsible manner. "This is because drinking by these youth is seen as an enticing "forbidden fruit," a "badge of rebellion against authority" and a symbol of "adulthood." The author states that as a nation we have tried prohibition legislation twice in the past for controlling irresponsible drinking problems. These laws were finally repealed because they were unenforceable and because the backlash towards them caused other social problems and now we're repeating history and making the same mistakes now. "Prohibition did not work then and prohibition for young people under the age of 21 is not working now." Research from the early 1980s until the present has shown a continuous decrease, and then leveling off, in drinking and driving related accidents. However, these declines started in 1980 before the national 1987 law which mandated states to have 21 year old alcohol purchase laws. The decrease in drinking and driving problems are the result of many factors, not just the increase in drinking age. Including: education concerning drunk driving, designated driver programs, increased seat belt and air bag usage, safer automobiles, lower speed limits, free taxi services from drinking establishments, etc. "Groups such as Italians, Greeks, Chinese and Jews, who have few drinking related problems, tend to share some common characteristics. Alcohol is neither seen as a poison or a magic potent, there is little or no social pressure to drink, irresponsible behavior is never tolerated, young people learn at home from their parents and from other adults how to handle alcohol in a responsible manner, there is societal consensus on what constitutes responsible drinking."

This article has been updated in 2014 and has functioning links. The intended audience would be people who read IU Scholar Works, and people who believe the drinking age should be lowered. The purpose of this article was to inform and state that we need to lower the drinking age .

This article is a great asset to my argument, it provides a lot of relevant information and support for my thesis.

Annotated Bibliography Peer Review Hamnes

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