Annotated Bibliography As

Acoasta, Vivian, and Jean Carpenter. Women in Intercollegiate Sport: A Longitudinal Study. Twenty Five Year Update, 1977-2002. University of New York, 2002. Web. Feb. 2015.

This source is a data base of sorts. It is a study of the last 25 years (1977-2002) showing the increase in female participation in sport. It talks about every sport offered to women throughout the years, participation rates, coaching rates, as well as opportunities for women in coaching jobs and as trainers. This study is based off the positive strides taken for women in sport after title IX was passed in 1972. This also talks specifically about the chances of women getting hired for a coaching position compared to men as well as the decrease in women coaching and some reasons why there might be a decline.

This study is a valid resource because it was funded by The Project on Women ant/Social Change of Smith College and Brooklyn College of the City University of New York. Its authors are Acoasta and Carpenter who have done numerous studies on women in sport which also make it a valid source. The source is some what outdated but the information and facts it presents gives validity to some theories regarding the declining trend of female coaches.

Like I said above, the facts stated in this study are good back up information to the theories I will present in my argument. This study also helps me better understand the declining trend and actually see the numbers changing. It also provides proof that the opportunity for women coaches is there and that the equality is not fair.

Cunningham, George B., and Michael Sagas. "Gender and Sex Diversity in Sport Organizations: Introduction to a Special Issue." Sex Roles 58.1-2 (2008): 3-9. Web. 18 Feb. 2015.

This article focused more on the broad range of sex differences in sport. The segment i was able to read had a lot of good information concerning the overall stereotypes that are still present among men and women coaches. It also looked at the equal, or rather unequal opportunities presented to women coaches as far as salary and power is concerned. The section of this article looked at these issues under the macro level lenses, looking at the big picture behind the gender roles and inequality between men and women coaches.

I found this source useful because it represents the same issues but under a broader spectrum and identifies the deeper rooted issues in gender differences in coaching. The article is validated by Texas A&M University Department of Health and Kinesiology. The information presented is relevant to my research because it contains other ideas of what the challenges of women in coaching may be and presents other conclusions for why numbers may be declining.

This article is helpful in providing other issues that may be causing the decline in women coaches as well as giving a good overview to the other issues at hand. It will provide a good background for my topic in evaluating where the issues may have originated and why they have not been resolved.

Kamphoff, Cindra, PhD. Bargaining with Patriarchy: Former Women Coaches' Experiences and Their Decision to Leave Collegiate Coaching. Diss. U of North Carolina, 2006. N.p.: UMI Dissertations, 2006. Print.

This article starts with some history about sports and the patriarchal system that is the NCAA. This article is very lengthy and talks about everything from the study done to explore women's experiences while coaching collegiately as well as the history of female coaches. This study and article is written under a very feminist perspective. The issue of women not feeling competent enough and not appreciated enough is brought up several times in this article. Another problem this article addresses is societies view of women needing to take care of the children and home.

This article is a little out of date, from 2006. The author has a PhD from University of North Carolina and includes many facts and statistics.

I think this article will give me a unique twist because of the biased view point that is shown with the feminist view. It will also give me good facts about strictly women coaches but it is written in such a feminist tone, that some of it resulted in eye rolling at the dramatic situations presented.

Kilty, Katie. "Women in Coaching." Human Kinetics (2006): n. pag. Endicott College, 6 Mar. 2006. Web. 18 Feb. 2015.

This article addressed two main issues in the world of women coaches. The first was the challenged associated with being a female in the competitive coaching world, and the second how to better educate women coaches to handle the challenges that might be thrown at them. This article discussed these challenges seen in the United States Olympic Committee (USOC) as well as in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) coaching conferences. Challenges were put into two categories; External and internal barriers and were discussed in depth. This article also focused on the educational piece of coaching and how to teach women to become better coaches. Strategies such as development of coaches, individual practice, and advocacy were mentioned. The strategies presented were intended for elite or collegiate level settings and coaches. The point of discussing the challenges associated with women and coaching as well as educational tools to help women coaches is all to better understand the declining trend of female coaches since the introduction of Title IX.

This article is a tad outdated (from 2006) but had very valid information on the topic and while it did state some research and statistics the ideas and challenges presented were still true to the athletic world today. This source is very reliable, most of the studies came from the NCAA or the USOC. This article was also sponsored by The Department of Sport Sciences at Endicott College and the author is also part of a private practice called MindPower Resources. The purpose was to inform about the challenges women coaches face and what can be done to fix these challenges.

This article had good informative information about my research topic. It also stated its information in a very positive manner which made it easy to understand and relate to. This article will help me shape my argument by giving some good ideas as to why there has been such a decrease in women coaches and what they go through during their time as a coach. It gives good insight to their roles and struggles that other sources may not.

LaVoi, Nicole M., Ph.D. "Head Coaches of Women's Collegiate Teams." (2015): n. pag. University of Minnesota. Tucker Center for Research on Girl's and Women in Sport, Jan. 2015. Web. 17 Feb. 2015.

This study focused on the facts of women in "big time" collegiate coaching positions and focused on Division I programs. It listed the percentages of women coaches from each school and were given grades to match the percentage of women coaches at each institution. The study found that 75 out of 86 institutions received a grade between C-F in 2015. The study also found that in 61% of women coaching turnovers the coach was replaced with a male. The overall study although did show some growth in certain institutions did not show an overall growth but however did not show an overall decline in women coaches either. The trend is showing consistency although growth is possible.

This article is current (2015) and valid sponsored by Tucker Center of University of Minnesota. There are no links in this study but the statistics and facts are included in the study. This study was conducted to report the annual growth of women coaches in the Division I- FBS institutions and was sponsored by the Alliance of Women Coaches.

This study is relevant to my research because it contains many facts to back up my argument. It is also very current and shows the trends in more than one aspect. It was helpful to see how some of the challenges brought up in other articles had impacted the numbers of women coaches and to see first hand how the numbers have changed over the years.

Theberge, Nancy. "Gender, Work and Power: The Case of Women and Coaching." Canadian Journal for Sociology 15.1 (1990): n. pag. Web. Feb. 2015.

This article talks a lot about societies view on sports. It goes into depth about gender and sport and the two ways women are viewed, either the sexy athlete or the athlete pushing for masculinity and equality with men. Patriarchy and masculinity is talked about a lot and how women aren't seen to be masculine and men rule the sports world. It is also brought up that coaching is a technical job and is all about who knows more about sport which in society is mostly seen as men. This article has some very good points brought up and is honestly written at a very high level and might take me a few more reads to really fully understand what it is saying.

This article is not current, it is from 1990. It is published by the Canadian Journal of Sociology. It has lots of facts in it and uses many sociology and psychology references.

This article is helpful but maybe not the best for the angle I hope to take on this argument. Since it is written from a sociology journal it is kind of difficult to understand but also offers a different view point behind the history of women in sport that a lot of other sources don't offer. It will be helpful but did not change my view of this topic.

Theberge, Nancy. "The Construction of Gender in Sport: Women, Coaching, and the Naturalization of Difference." (1993): n. pag. Web. Feb. 2015.

This study is based off the interviews with 49 women coaches from Canada. These interviews explored a number of topics including some referring to other women in the coaching industry. This article also explores the connection between masculinity and coaching as well as the connection between sport and gender in general. It also goes into detail about the differences between having women and men coaches for different sports and what is better. The pressures put on women to perform well in coaching positions is also highlighted.

This article is out of date (1993) but is still current with trends in women coaching. It was written by Nancy Theberge of University of Waterloo and have many references sited in the text. It is also backed by sources such as Acoasta and Carpenter who has long been studying women in sport. This source also includes interview dialogue to back up its reasonings.

This source is good and even though it is a little old I think it will help me with my argument because it has dialogue straight from actual women coaches which is a very important piece. This source will help me better understand the feelings of loss of power to men coming straight from the coaches themselves.

Annotated Bib Peer Review AS

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