Annotated Bibliography B E

The main purpose of this article is to inform the public of the effects of sulfide mining on water, organisms, ecosystems, and even humans and how it will affect the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness. It has many examples of other sulfide mines that have left other areas - areas more arid than Minnesota - with tens of millions of dollars of clean-up work to be done. In many of these examples, the mining company working it goes bankrupt and refuses to pay for the cleanup. This article also says a bit about how Minnesota’s Legislature is handling proposals from mining companies and even proposed bills by the Friends of the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness, a qualified organization dedicated to keeping the BWCAW a healthy ecosystem.

This source’s purpose is to inform readers of this dilemma, and while it is slightly biased against mining, it does explain a couple pros of mining. The author(s) are the Friends of the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness, so they are fairly qualified to be writing this. The intended audience is anyone who cares about the Boundary Waters or is affiliated with this organization. It explains what sulfide mining is clearly and quickly, while giving many examples of past mines and names of mining companies proposing currently. It also explains many ways sulfide mining can hurt the environment. Also, it has a .org address, which makes it a more trustable site. This source it helpful and reliable.

After reading this article, I feel more informed on my topic and more passionate about my argument. I do believe that the Friends are qualified and knowledgeable and I can trust the information they have displayed in this writing. I do feel comfortable using this article in my argument.

This source explains the plans proposed by the company PolyMet for the “NorthMet Project” and the plans already underway and others proposed by company Twin Metals. It focuses on how the mines will operate and where they will be situated. This source also brings more detail to other facts I have read in other articles, making the information more complete.

This article is much shorter than others I have read, but it is also very clear and has a plethora of information in its concise summary. This writing’s purpose is to inform readers on how proposed sulfide mining projects will work and how the companies are responding to the state. The intended audience is anyone who wants to learn more about the effects of mining. It is completely unbiased - only ever explaining how or why rather than questioning the companies or explaining the downfalls. It also has a .org address, which makes my trust its authors and information more.

I believe this article has provided me with more information about how and where sulfide mining will occur and how companies are working with the state with their proposals. It has also given me tidbits of information that complete ideas that I have had from previous sources. I believe this source will be helpful in developing a more well-rounded argument.

This article is an overview of how the Minnesota Center for Environmental Advocacy has been reacting to the exploration of sulfide mining in northern Minnesota. It draws attention to the numerous after-effects that mining will have on the environment, including sulfates effects on wild rice and mercury’s effects on newborns. It also brings up a campaign launched by the Friends of BWCAW and the MCEA called Mining Truth, which is trying to raise awareness about the dangers and ensure that Governor Dayton is confident that Minnesota’s wilderness and water will not be affected by sulfide mining.

The purpose of this article is to raise awareness about the harmful effects of sulfide mining and expose how MCEA is reacting to this exploration. The intended audience is anyone who is concerned for their health and the environment. It mentioned the risks to humans rather than just plants and animals, which I believe would definitely sway people's opinions about mining. It is at a respectable .org website and restates information that I have found on other websites also, so I do believe it is a trustworthy source.

This article amazed me with its statistics concerning newborns in Northern Minnesota having excessive amounts of mercury in their bloodstream. How could we tolerate sulfide mining when it has these effects on not only the environment, but us as well? This article has exposed me to new ideas and will definitely help me while creating my argument.

This article related the idea of sulfide mining to people’s lives. It begins by relating the Boundary Waters to people canoeing and kayaking and then asking whether it would bother people if these activities were no longer possible due to pollution. It brought up new ideas to me, such as the devastation of Minnesota’s wild rice harvest and that the waste from mining can lead to mercury in the water, killing fish and other organisms. It also brought up that Minnesota has had explorative operations done in the 1970’s, and the polluted drainage from them has still not been cleaned up.

This article is on a website with a .org address, so I can trust the authors to have the facts right. The intended audience is anyone who frequently goes to the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness or other bodies of water in Northern Minnesota. The information stated in this article I have seen on other websites I have trusted also, so I believe I can trust this website. The purpose of the writing is to persuade the readers to click on the link at the bottom that links you to a website that allows you to send a message to senators urging them to not allow the sulfide mining. The article is biased against mining.

This article has provided me with a few new ideas and some background information on sulfide mining in Minnesota. It has directed me to a link where I can contact senators directly about the issue, which I find very empowering. I trust the website and the information it provides and I believe it will help me develop my argument.

This article, published by, explicitly states why sulfide mining is an issue and its effect on ecosystems, how Minnesota is currently regulating mining, and how sulfide mining is being encouraged by some of Minnesota’s legislature and organizations. It covers many fields containing small details that contribute to explain how disruptive sulfide mining is to not only animals, plants, and water, but to humans as well. It also mentions how many organizations are or are not regulating mining and the inadequacies of current mining regulations.

This source is very in depth with all of its information and draws out tiny details that help add to it’s argument. The purpose of this article is to raise awareness about sulfide mining while providing sufficient information about the issue to make it more than just opinion, as it is definitely biased against sulfide mining. The intended audience for this article is people who care about how Minnesota is reacting to mining and how organizations are reacting to mining. Although biased, this source uses mostly facts when actually discussing the issue and its outcomes. No author is listed, but seems like a very centered, detail-oriented website that knows its facts.

This source provided me with statistics and data that I have not read in any other sources up to this point. All of the small fragments of data I can extract to make my argument stronger and more precise will be used. This article also had a link to a video interview about sulfide mining by the Friends of the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness, which I will definitely use if it proves to be credible. Overall, this source is trustworthy and full of information.

  • Widner, Neva Ann. "Land of 10,000 Acidic Lakes? Sulfide Mining in Northeastern Minnesota." College of Saint Benedict/Saint John's University, 1 Jan. 2010. Web. 11 Feb. 2015. < Studies/curriculum/395/Widner.pdf>.

This source is a study done by Neva Ann Widner from College of Saint Benedict/Saint John's University. She looks at reviews from Minnesota's government, the United States Geological Survey, and numerous other sources while conducting interviews with individuals from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, PolyMet Mining Inc, University of Montana, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, and other credible establishments. Widner looks at the methods of mining PolyMet is considering, the effects of sulfide mining and acidic drainage, and how unpredictable the market for base metals is due to industrialization in other countries. She comes to the conclusion that “Sulfide mining is a poor option for the Northeastern Minnesota economy” and provides some solutions to make it a more reliable source of income.

This research was conducted by a student at CSB/SJU and advised by Dr. Derek Larson in the fall of 2010. The intended audience for this source is most likely CSB/SJU students and faculty along with environmental advocates. Widner provides references she used to research and includes the methods she used for her research; Which included but was not limited to literature review of news articles and reports to the Minnesota state legislature, personal interviews with many clubs and incorporations connected to the issue, and data analysis from the United States Geological Survey and case studies from former operations. Widner provides information I have already observed in other sources, so I trust any new information I received was legit. The purpose of this source is to open readers eyes to the harmful side-effects sulfide mining has on the environment and how it is not needed for Minnesota’s economy to prosper. This article is biased against mining, but provides real information rather than opinion.

This article delved more into the economics behind sulfide mining in a way I could understand, which helped me consider that side of this issue. Widner provided many pictures and maps which helped her describe location and how deadly the pollution is, which stirred me to be even more vehemently against sulfide mining. I trust that Widner and her advisor are both people I can trust to provide credible information. This source will definitely help me develop my argument against sulfide mining.

  • Power, Thomas Michael. "The Economic Role of Metal Mining in Minnesota: Past, Present, and Future." A Report Prepared for the Sierra Club and Minnesota Center for Environmental Advocacy 39 (2007).

This report goes in-depth to weigh the pros and cons of metal mining in northeastern Minnesota. It recognizes how the economy of Minnesota has reacted in the past to mining “booms and busts” and uses these examples as the key to interpreting a future in mining in Minnesota. It looks at how many jobs will be made available if mining is established, and how much of an impact that would have on the economy. It brings up some pros to mining, and follows up by knocking them down with other information. This report also looks at how Minnesota's quality of life will change if metal mining is accepted into the state. This report then takes all of the information it just presented and uses it to determine how Minnesota can support sustainability in the future.

This report was prepared for Minnesota Center for Environmental Advocacy and the Sierra Club - both of which are held in very high esteem among the sustainable community - in October of 2007. The purpose is to use information about Minnesota’s economy in the past to determine whether metal mining now will be worth the hassle and damage it will instill. The intended audience is people who want to know how mining will effect Northeastern Minnesota's economy. It is biased against mining, but uses concrete information and evidence in its argument. This report also has an “About the Author” section, which diffuses any doubts the reader may have about the author.

This report is very thorough and well-organized. It has a Table of Contents, which will be helpful when writing certain parts of my argument. The author seems qualified and the organizations this report was written for are both very prestigious, so I do trust the information in this source. It ties many ideas together while analyzing sulfide mining, which is very useful for me to expand my ideas about this subject.

Annotated Bibliography Peer Review B.E.

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