Annotated Bibliography Berkelman

Bauer, Shane, Ryan Jacobs, and Robert O. Brown. "No Way Out." Mother Jones 37.6 (2012): 22-67. Academic Search Premier. Web. 23 Feb. 2015.

This article is an in-depth investigation of the Secure Housing Unit (SHU) at Pelican Bay State Prison in California. The facility typically holds their inmates in solitary confinement for twenty-three hours a day. There are some prisoners who have been held in SHU's like Pelican Bay for twenty years, enduring solitary confinement every day of those twenty years. One of the authors, Shane Bauer, was held in solitary confinement in Iran at Evin Prison. In the article, Bauer compares the conditions between Pelican Bay and the prison he was held at in Iran. The psychological effects of prolonged solitary confinement, like the confinement at Pelican Bay, is also discussed in the article. Also, the authors discuss the United Nations' definition of torture, and how SHU's are defying that definition.

The article was published in 2012, which is pretty recent. The date of publication doesn't matter too much with the topic of solitary confinement because it has been a problem for awhile and continues to be. This source is very relevant to my research. Like a couple of my other sources, this one investigates inside a prison that is using solitary confinement. Also, the author has experienced solitary confinement and compares the facility to the one he was held at in Iran. There isn't much information on any of the authors or their credentials. This source was originally a newspaper article, but it was published into a magazine and that was the version I used. The only thing that makes any of the authors stand out is that one of them, Shane Bauer, has been in solitary confinement himself. Besides that, the authors aren't a very credible. Because this was an investigative/reporter paper, I'd like to believe that the information is accurate. The authors interviewed inmates, toured the facility, and were reporting on the conditions. They did not do any outside research and have no sources. Also, because the author has been in solitary confinement, it is easier to believe the information is accurate. The purpose of the article is to show how inhumane and horrific the conditions are, in hopes of getting a policy changes.

Although I really like this source and the idea of the author, who has been held in solitary confinement, investigating another institution for comparisons, I'm hesitant to use this source. The authors have no credentials and they didn't do any research or use any sources to support their claims. I will have to reread the source, but more likely than not, I will not use this source.

Cloud, David H., Ernest Drucker, Angela Browne, and Jim Parsons. "Public Health and Solitary Confinement in the United States." American Journal of Public Health 105.1 (2015): 18-26. Academic Search Premier. Web. 23 Feb. 2015.

This article is an analysis of solitary confinement. It breaks down each part of it like the conditions prisoners are held in, the characteristics of the populations who were being held in solitary confinement, the effects solitary confinement has on the inmates, and how public health professionals should handle it. The authors stress the obligation that public health agencies have with inmates and solitary confinement. They believe that public health agencies have a duty to reform and replace the system of solitary confinement. The authors believe this because agencies like public health agencies work for the people to ensure that the environment is safe and friendly to the public. However, solitary confinement is far from safe. It causes great psychological harm, and that is why the authors believe these agencies have an obligation to get rid of solitary confinement.

The article was published in 2015 and is very recent. I think it is relevant to my topic because it is addressing solitary confinement, the need for change, and how to achieve that change. The authors are David Cloud, Ernest Drucker, Angela Browne, and Jim Parsons. Cloud works at the Substance Use and Mental Health Program, Vera Institute of Justice, in New York, NY, Drucker is a Professor emeritus, Department of Family and Social, Medicine, at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Browne works at the Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, in New York, NY, and Parsons works at Vera Institute of Justice, in New York, NY. Also, there is an email provided for David Cloud. I'd say the authors are credible because they all have relevant training in the subject, use sources in their article, and provide contact information. From what I've read I would say that the information they provide is quite accurate. They also provide sources to help back their information up. The purpose of this article is to show people of the horrible conditions and effects of solitary confinement, but also to show people that the public health agencies should be stepping in and enforcing reform to help change it.

I think I will use this source for my research because I believe it is very accurate and provides good information about the problem. Also, it has an interesting view that public health agencies should be involved more with the problem and should stop solitary confinement from continuing.

Gordon, Shira E. "SOLITARY CONFINEMENT, PUBLIC SAFETY, AND RECIDIVISM." University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform 47.2 (2013): 495-528. Academic Search Premier. Web. 22 Feb. 2015.

In the article, the author provides multiple facts and statistics in hopes of showing that solitary confinement is being used more readily instead of using an alternative method. The facts are also used to show that solitary confinement should be abolished from all prisons. Gordon stresses that not only is solitary confinement being used more, but the amount of time an inmate is in solitary confinement is being extended. According to Gordon, inmates can be held in solitary confinement for more than five years instead of what is used to be, which was twenty-four hours. Gordon also addresses how solitary confinement is used to protect to public and prevent recidivism (prisoners committing crimes again). However, Gordon believes solitary confinement does the opposite of that. She believes that it has such horrific effects on people that it can cause them to re-offend more easily than other inmates. Also discussed is the unconstitutionality of solitary confinement and how the rights of the inmates are violated.

The article was published in 2013, which is quite recent. With the topic of solitary confinement the more recent the source the better because there are new studies being done, but if the source is a bit older it doesn't matter too much because solitary confinement has been an issue for awhile. I believe this source is very relevant because it provides pretty shocking numbers and statistics that I can use. Also, it provides an interesting perspective of how solitary confinement CAUSES a harm to the public and a higher risk of recidivism. The author is Shira Gordon. She works at the University of Michigan Law School. I believe she is credible because she works at a law school and is discussing things about confinement, which she should have plenty of expertise on. Also, she has solid information that she backs up with sources. Her purpose is to show that solitary confinement is a horrific form of punishment that causes the public harm, causes a higher risk of recidivism, and is unconstitutional.

I think I will definitely use this source because this facts an statistics it provides are bound to be useful. Also, the author takes a very interesting perspective that I will use and pursue as I research this topic more.

Jefferys, Derek S. "Cruel but Not Unusual." Commonweal 141.11 (2014): 20-23. Academic Search Premier. Web. 18 Feb. 2015.

Jefferys discusses the ethical issues with solitary confinement. He discusses how putting someone in solitary confinement, even temporarily, can degrade and diminish their character greatly. He gives a good background into the history of solitary confinement, and how it got started in the federal prison in Marion, Illinois. He discusses what the role of solitary confinement is, which include the safety and well being of all prisoners, to segregate certain prisoners who cannot get along well, and ultimately to reduce violence. Also, Jefferys discusses the physical, spiritual, and social damage that occur from solitary confinement.

Jefferys article was published in 2014 so it is pretty current. The information is relevant, like my earlier source, Jefferys looks at rights and the ethics of the problem, but also the history of it. Jefferys is a professor of humanistic studies and religion in Green Bay,which would infer that he has the qualifications to discuss this topic and fully understand the effects that solitary confinement has . Jefferys does not provide many sources to back up his article, but some of his information was similar to the one from the Harvard Law Review, so I would say he is pretty accurate. The purpose is to show that peoples' rights are being abused and that solitary confinement causes psychological abuse.

I'm not convinced that I would use this source for my research yet. Some of the information was helpful, but I am slightly questioning Jefferys' credibility because of the lack of sources and supports. I will have to look over all my sources again before I make a final decision.

Kaba, Fatos, Andrea Lewis, Sarah Glowa-Kollisch, James Hadler, David Lee, Howard Apler, Daniel Selling, Ross MacDonald, Angela Solimo, Amanda Parsons, and Homer Venters. "Solitary Confinement and Risk of Self-Harm Among Jail Inmates." American Journal of Public Health 104.3 (2014): 442-47. Academic Search Premier. Web. 19 Feb. 2015

The group of authors wanted to see if there was a link between self harm in prisons and mental illness. They studied a number of inmates for 3 years. They found no real connection between race, gender, or age, but they did find a connection with solitary confinement. They found that even if an inmate was only in solitary confinement once, they were more likely to develop mental problems and to hurt themselves. With this study, they concluded that solitary confinement is very destructive and now in New York (where the authors work) they are developing a new form of punishment, trying to eliminate solitary confinement and the damage it causes.

The article was published in March of 2014 so it is rather current. This source is very relevant and important for my topic. The authors studied different prisons and prisoners, and ultimately found how terrible solitary confinement is. Their results proved that inmates who experience solitary confinement, even just once, are more likely to cause self-harm and develop a range of mental disorders. The authors work for the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene in Queens, NY. I would say they are very qualified to do this study and report on their findings because it is their job and they know what they are looking for. I believe the information is very accurate since the authors are reporting on a study that was performed, not just making statements. The purpose of the article was to show people how mental illness and self-harm link to solitary confinement.

This is a very strong source for me. I will definitely use this source in my research. They were qualified to do the study, they performed it well, and they presented their findings correctly. Also, their findings are very beneficial for me because it supports my view that solitary confinement cause psychological issues. Now with this source I'm also able to prove that solitary confinement causes self-harm in the prison system as well.

"THE PSYCHOLOGY OF CRUELTY: RECOGNIZING GRAVE MENTAL HARM IN AMERICAN PRISONS." Harvard Law Review 128.4 (2015): 1250-271. Academic Search Premier. Web. 18 Feb. 2015.

This article was written by students at Harvard. They believe that solitary confinement is a cruel punishment that can cause psychological damage to inmates (suicide attempts, mutilation, unstable mental state). They claim that the effects solitary confinement have on prisoners are typically over looked because they usually doesn't cause physical harm. Solitary confinement cause psychological damage, and that is why it is so easy for the court system to turn a blind eye to the problem. The article says the reason solitary confinement causes so many psychological issues is because it denies people from having social interactions and contact from one another. The authors state that solitary confinement continues to be a popular form of punishment within our penal system. They claim it is because the courts don't believe it is cruel and only apply the Eighth Amendment of the Constitution to physical harm.

The information is very current because it was published in February of 2015. This is nice, but not required for my topic. My topic is solitary confinement so older information will apply, but it is nice to know it is still a relevant topic and solitary confinement is still occurring so often. I think this source is a good one because it has useful information for my topic. However, it may be a little bias towards the courts and their views on solitary confinement. The article did not have an author which is always worrisome. However, I believe it is a credible source because it is from Harvard which is a very good university, and the authors use good sources in their writing. I believe the source is accurate because they provide sources for you to follow up on and based on my knowledge they are correct. The purpose of the article is to inform the public of the harm solitary confinement causes, and to try to get people to want change.

I believe this source will be very useful for my research. It provides additional sources I can use, addresses rights, and uses neuroscience to support it's views. It will be beneficial to me when I'm writing my research paper because it has many arguments for why solitary confinement is wrong.

Shalev, Sharon. "Solitary Confinement and Supermax Prisons: A Human Rights and Ethical Analysis." Journal of Forensic Pychology Practice 11.2 (2011): 151-83. Academic Search Premier. Web. 22 Feb. 2015.

The article's main focus is rights. Shalev focuses on the inmates legal, and constitutional, rights. She believes that Supermax prisons, prisons that punish people strictly with solitary confinement, should be considered illegal because they are so unconstitutional. She claims they are unconstitutional because they are inhumane. The damage done by the Supermax prisons is far greater than any good they produce. Because of this, Shalev claims they are unconstitutional due to the Eighth Amendment of the Constitution, which says no one will have "cruel or unusual punishment inflicted". In her article, Shalev claims that these Supermax prisons that enforce punishment with solitary confinement is indeed a form of cruel and unusual punishment. Because of this, Shalev strongly encourages the judicial system to rethink the system of solitary confinement and how the system sees fit to punish and reform people.

This article was published in 2011, which isn't too outdated. This article mainly discusses Supermax prisons an how they utilize solitary confinement. Since there are Supermax prisons still in use I believe that this article is still in date and useful. This article is pretty relevant for my research because it is a good inside look into the prison system that uses solitary confinement as their primary form of punishment. Therefore, it is important to research Supermax prisons and the effects they have, which this source does. The author is Sharon Shalev. She is a professor in the Criminology department at London School of Economics and Political Science & International Centre for Prison Studies, in London, United Kingdom. She provides her email and I'd say she is a very credible source because she has credentials at an University, she provides an email, and has knowledge about what she is writing. She provides evidence to back herself up, and when she does so, she cites it. Also, from what I know, she is accurate with the information she is giving. The purpose she is writing this article is because she wants to persuade people that Supermax prisons, and other prisons that use solitary confinement, are inhumane, and unconstitutional.

I am sure I will use this source in my research because it contains useful information that I can compare with my other sources. Also, I feel as though it is very credible and will be useful for my research as I attempt to show that solitary confinement is damaging to people and their well being.

Annotated Bibliography Peer Review Berkelman

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