Annotated Bibliography BW

Writers Memo:
I found this research to be particularly interesting because I actually learned a lot of new information that I had never known.
This part of my annotated bibliography was surprisingly difficult: finding scholarly articles was the hardest because searching for them is way different then just going on Google.
Next time I would do this differently: Not wait till the last minute to find scholarly articles, find those two articles first and then find the rest of my sources because there is many outside sources so that was easy.

Brian G. Henning. "Standing in Livestock's 'Long Shadow': The Ethics of Eating Meat on a Small Planet." Ethics & the Environment 16.2 (2011): 63-93. Project MUSE. Web. 10 Feb. 2014. <>.

This essay’s main arguments are that meat is not environmentally friendly and has health risks. The author states that meat causes depletion and pollution of waterways, deforestation of land, and global warming. Most livestock are actually raised in concentrated animal feeding operations which brings up the problem for spreading diseases easily within the livestock. Also humans are over consuming meat and it is causing obesity, chronic and no communicable diseases. The author brought up facts stating that one- third of an average person’s daily protein comes from meat sources which is a very high amount because humans don’t need any meat in their diet to actually survive.

Brian Henning published this essay in 2011 as part of his work as a professor at Gonzaga University. The purpose is to inform readers on how meat isn't good for the environment. This is considered relevant for my topic. Brian is qualified to talk about this topic because he specializes in the environment and ethics of global climate change. This article could be opinionated because it is the ethics, but from his background he is well educated on the topic. He has written a book called The Ethics of Creativity: beauty, Morality, and nature in a Processive Cosmos. He uses other resources to help prove and shape his argument and published his essay on Project Muse. Project Muse is a credible website to get reliable information from on many topics.

This source provides me with good information on how livestock impacts the environment and provides me with good facts to put in my paper about how much the average person eats and how it causes obesity which is something my other sources don’t mention.

Harding, Anne. "Study: Too Much Red Meat May Shorten Lifespan." CNN. Cable News Network, 13 Mar. 2012. Web. 09 Feb. 2014. <>.

Anne Harding writes an article to Americans about how substituting fish, poultry, and nuts is a good source to meet the nutrient requirements that are received from red meat. The article doesn’t only touch base on red meat from cows but that hot dogs, bacon, and salami are also bad and may even be worse than red meat. She also explains how red meat at high temperatures can produce carcinogens on the surface. If Americans substituted one serving daily with fish, poultry, or nuts then the risk of getting cancer decrease 7% to 19%.

This article was updated in 2012 which makes it recent for my topic. I found this article from CNN, which is considered a great source to get information from. The author of the article is a journalist who focuses her writing only on health topics. She has worked as a medical editor for Reuters Health and she was a managing editor at Medical Tribune News Service. She is also the author of a book called Milestones in Health and Medicine. Since the author has a background in health and medicine, she then is qualified to talk about the topic of the article. The purpose of this article is to inform readers, mainly people looking into going vegetarian about the health risks of meat and what you can do to substitute.

This source will help me provide more depth with my argument. It provides me with a great study that was performed that I can use in my paper and to talk about what has been found in meat that causes these health risks. This article talks about what vegetarians can do to substitute meat, which is a new aspect I can add to my paper.

Imus, Deirdre. "Getting to the 'meat' of the Matter: Is Eating Meat Good for You?" Fox News. FOX News Network, 20 May 2013. Web. 09 Feb. 2014. <>.

The article on “Is Eating Meat Good for You” explains that not eating meat will benefit your health. Deirdre discusses the risks of eating meat and that red meat consists of mostly saturated fat and is related to high cholesterol. She highlights on a study done from Dr. Stanley Hazen from Cleveland Clinic about Lecithin which clogs arteries and an article from Scientific American that talks about the environmental impact of having animals. Deirdre lastly discusses alternatives to meats and how to get the necessary protein in your diet.

This source is to be considered usable because it was published in 2013, it relates to my topic of interest, and the author is credible. Deirdre is the president and founder of the Deirdre Imus Environmental Health Center which makes her very educated and credible to be talking about the health risks of eating meat. She also is a vegetarian herself and owns her own environmental health website. She was able to back up her argument with good, credible sources and it is not biased information.

This source is very helpful for my topic because it covers the aspects of the health and environmental risks. She gave me other sources as well that can greatly shape my argument. I am going to use this information to explain to readers what is in meat that makes meat a big health risks and how it is bad for the environment to raise millions of animals.

"The Vegetarian Food Pyramid." Loma Linda University. Department of Nutrition, 2008. Web. 11 Feb. 2014. <>.

This document explains and shows the daily servings of each food group that vegetarians should get. Whole grains, legumes and soy are at the bottom of the pyramid. Vegetarians need 5 to 12 servings of whole grains each day and need 1 to 3 servings of legumes and soy. Next on the pyramid if fruits and vegetables then nuts and seeds. The top of the pyramid consists of nuts and seeds, dairy, eggs, and sweets at the tip top of the pyramid. A side not on the chart is for vegetarians to find a good source to get enough B12 in their diet if they don’t consume eggs. The last part of the document talks about vegetarian facts including what a vegetarian is, the guidelines, and if the vegetarian diet has enough protein and vitamin B12.

The document only says it came out in 2008 which isn’t recent but it works for the topic that is being used. There is no one author; it was published by the department of Nutrition and Loma Linda University in California. This University is only a health sciences school which qualifies them to be writing about the topic. I don’t think it is biases, some of the information could be their own but since it is from the department of health it should be okay.

This source may or may not be as credible as I would like it to be, but I was looking for a pyramid with the food groups and they had a good one to use and gave me more facts about the vegetarian diet that I can use in my paper.

"Vegetarian and Vegan Eating." Better Health Channel. Better Health Channel, 29 Nov. 2013. Web. 11 Feb. 2014. <>.

This article explains to readers what a vegetarian is and the different types of vegetarians. There are three different types; lacto-ovo vegetarian, lacto-vegetarian, and vegans. Lacto-ovo vegetarians are people who do not eat any meat and seafood. They will eat dairy and plant foods. A lacto-vegetarian doesn’t eat meat, seafood, and eggs but eats some dairy and mostly plant foods. Lastly, a vegan’s diet consists of only plant foods. Later in the article it talks about the benefits and how to substitute nutrients to meet the daily needs.

This article was published by the Better Health Channel who focuses their website and information given to the public strictly on health and medical information. All the infotmation posted is first checked by Deakin University Australia which is a college in Australia that focuses on exercise and nutrition sciences. I consider this source to be credible because their main focus is health and because they get their information from a college that specializes in as well. The article was updated in 2013 so that is fairly relevant.

This source is good to use in my paper because I am going to use the information about the different types of vegetarians and explain that in my paper and the nutritional substitutes that people can do to still get their daily needs of nutrients.

"Why Go Vegetarian or Vegan? | Vegetarian Times." Vegetarian Times. Vegetarian Times, n.d. Web. 08 Feb. 2014. <>.

In this article it explains why going vegetarian is a better way of eating including that you will be saved from diseases, you won’t gain a lot of weight and be obese, live longer, stronger bones, have more energy, and avoid toxic chemicals. Also it mentions all the diseases and cancers that are possible to get from eating meat. Some of the diseases and cancers are coronary artery disease, diabetes, and colon and breast cancer. Vegetarian Times states that a low fat vegetarian diet is the most effect way to stop the progression of coronary artery disease. Also that a vegetarian diet can add 13 years to people’s lives.

This article doesn’t have a date it was published or an author. It was published by the contributors who run the website/magazine. Not having an author or date published might not make the article as credible. Vegetarian Times has been providing recipes and wellness information for over 30 years. They have a website and a magazine people can subscribe too. Since Vegetarian Times only gives out information and recipes about food and health, this could make the source qualify and to be credible to use in my paper.

I consider this article to be a very good source to use in my paper because it provides me with a lot of information for my argument and brings up other points that my sources don’t cover. It makes me believe more that going vegetarian might be the official way to go.

WJ, Craig, and Mangels AR. "Position of the American Dietetic Association: Vegetarian Diets." Position of the American Dietetic Association: Vegetarian Diets. Journals of the Academny of Nutrition and Dietetics, 2009. Web. 11 Feb. 2014. <>.

This article explains to readers many different aspects of being a vegetarian and why to become one. Craig and Mangels talk about the vitamins that are important, the life cycle of being a vegetarian including from being an infant to older adults. Even athletes can become vegetarians. They touch base on the different diseases that vegetarians are avoiding by not eating meat and also the blood lipid levels.

I found this article from Google scholarly articles and the article was published from the Journal of the the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics which focuses all their articles on the practice and science of food, nutrition, and dietetics which makes this source credible to be talking about vegetarian diets. The two authors who wrote this article work for this journal company which means they both have knowledge about health. The article was published in 2009 so it is relevant and doesn't seem to be biased.

I consider this source to be excellent to use for my paper. There is one aspect from this source that I didn't think about putting into my paper and that is that anyone can become a vegetarian from infant to older adults and even athletes.

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