Annotated Bibliography Claire

Blake, William. "Voice from Solitary: A Sentence Worse Than Death." 25 December 2014. Solitary Watch: News from a Nation in Lockdown. Web page . 11 February 2015

This article was written by an Inmate by the name of William Blake. He has been in solitary confinement for the last 25 years for the murder of a deputy and the attempted murder of another during an escape attempt. He wrote this to highlight how inhumane solitary confinement is. He recounted how many people around him went insane as the days slowly rolled by. He wrote this based on his own experiences. He goes on to say that he regrets ever committing the crime that got him locked away. He talks about how our boredom is different than his. If he is bored he can't walk around the neighborhood like free people can. He can't talk to anyone if he needs company. All he has is his 8 by 10 foot cell.

I chose this article because I didn't just want a bunch of sources of what doctors and psychiatrists think solitary confinement does to you. I wanted a personal account of what actually happens. I also was trying to find someone who has spent a long time in solitary. Not just someone who was in there for a day or so. I wanted someone who has had to cope with this. The point he successfully got across is that solitary confinement is worse than death. Of course this source is biased since he isn't talking about both sides but that is what I was looking for. This article is fairly recent which is nice since it means their information is up to date with any and all new opinions or facts. This article doesn't rely heavily on facts since it is a personal account. The intended audience is open to anyone. William simply wants people to know what it is like living in solitary confinement. This article is very easy to understand. The only down fall is that there is no way to verify what he is saying other than to go to the institution and see for yourself. I believe he is being truthful simply because he has so many details in his story.

This source was helpful to me because I was looking for a personal account on how solitary confinement is and what it does to you. This source will help me strengthen my argument that solitary confinement needs to be overhauled.

Jeffrey L. Metzner, MD and Jamie Fellner Esq. "Solitary Confinement and Mental Illness in U.S. Prisons: A Challenge for Medical Ethics." Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law Online (2010). Online Journal. 17 February 2015.

This article talks about the need to update and reform prisons across the country. They talk about how segregation is no longer an appropriate way to handle violent prisoners. More and more people are going insane being in solitary confinement so something needs to change. They do not say that we should throw it out all together but more so, it needs to be used and handled differently.

This article is very useful because it highlights the dangers of using solitary confinement as a punishment, especially for long periods of time. This source is the only article that goes into detail the effects solitary confinement, or segregation has on people. The author is a doctor and his writing is in the journal of American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law Online which would put solitary confinement right in their field. The source is biased since it only mentions the harm that comes from the use of segregation. They do mention that in some instances, for example violent inmates that cannot be put into the general population, the use of solitary confinement is necessary to insure the safety of others. The goal of this source is to highlight the impact of using solitary confinement on inmates and that it needs to change. This article has been out for five years so some of the information may be slightly outdated but the author is very thorough so I believe that it doesn't matter. The article has been revised and updated. The URL is .org which means it is a top non-profit organization. Also the author is a MD (doctor of medicine) and the other author is a lawyer so any legal terms or opinion are backed by an expert in the field. The links in the article all work. You can also click on the authors name to see that he has written numerous articles about mental and physical health.

This source will fit into my research by showing the effects solitary confinement has on inmates minds while confined. This source was helpful to me because it listed the effects segregation has and lists them effectively and lists them in a straightforward manner.

Schwirtz, Michael and Michael Winerip. "Rikers to ban Isolation for inmates 21 and younger ." The New York Times (2015): 3. Online Article.

This article talks about the Rikers Island Complex move to ban solitary confinement for all inmates under the age of 21. This move will make Rikers Island complex, usually a troubled building, into one of the many institutions that are moving to reform jails and prisons across the nation. Rikers is the second-largest jail system in the country. They also mention that the use of solitary confinement is especially damaging for young adults. Inmates in solitary confinement are locked in their cells for 23 hours a day and are given 1 hour outside in another cage. As of January 9th Rikers Island had 497 locked away who were between the ages of 19 and 21. 103 of those 497 were being held in solitary confinement. The move to reduce the use of Solitary Confinement was approved, 7 to 0 by the cities board of corrections. The change will not take effect until 2016 due to funding restrictions. To replace solitary confinement a new wing will be built to house 250 of the most violent criminals. The block will be called Enhanced Supervision housing and the inmates will be locked in their cells for 17 hours instead of the normal 10.

This article is similar to my other articles but, it talks strictly about the move to keep people of a certain age out of solitary confinement. This source is purely objective, it simply talks about the new move to reduce the number of young inmates in solitary. The purpose or goal of this source is to inform its reader that Rikers Island, a usually troubled prison, is being reformed. This source seems reliable since they mention multiple sources and have direct quotes from the people involved in this decision. This article is recent so the sources they used are all up to date. They wrote this article to inform its readers that Rikers Island is undergoing a change. I believe the author is qualified to write about this topic since he is simply reporting the facts of what is happening. This article is important to my writing because I needed a source that talks about the success associated with reforming prisons and jails around the world.

This source was helpful to me because I was looking for a recent reform a prison went under concerning solitary confinement. This article shows that prisons can and should change their use of solitary confinement. I will mention this source when it comes to talking about ways prisons can change for the better. It hasn't really changed how I think about this topic. It just confirms my thoughts that solitary confinement is a necessary evil but some things about it do need to change.

Smith, Peter Scharff. "The Effects of Solitary Confinement on Prison Inmates: A Brief History and Review of the Literature." Chicago Journals (2006): 441-528. Online .

This article hits all the main points concerning solitary confinement. It mentions the history, modern research on the topic, the range of symptoms associated with this form of punishment and finally the legality of using segregation regarding the feelings of uncertainty it causes, the rate of suicides during pretrial isolation, the practice of solitary confinement as extortion and finally its impact on the inmates ability to defend themselves legally. He talks about both sides of the argument regarding segregation. He mentions why solitary confinement is sometimes necessary but also talks about the side effects it causes.

I believe this source is useful because it covers everything about solitary confinement I was looking for: history, research on the topic, symptoms that come from the use of solitary confinement and the legal concerns. Compared to my other sources this one is more thorough. I believe the information is reliable because the Chicago Press is well known and he cites all of his sources appropriately and his sources are reputable. This writing simply states the facts so it is unbiased. The writer tends to lean towards the negatives of solitary confinement but says that he understands it is necessary sometimes depending on the situation. The purpose of this journal is to inform. This article is slightly outdated but the author covers such a broad area it doesn't matter. All of the sources he used seem credible.

This source was very helpful to me. It hit all the main points I wanted and it is reliable. This sources supports my argument that solitary confinement is a necessary evil but it needs to be modified. It has not changed how I feel about my topic, it only supports my reasoning.

Solitary Nation. Dir. Dan Edge. 2014. Online Video.

This source is a video published by Frontline called Solitary Nation. It follows the environment a few inmates in solitary confinement, or seg, as the inmates put it have to cope with. They filmed this in the Maine State Penitentiary where the newly appointed warden is trying to reduce the number of inmates in segregation. They also talked to the warden about the conditions in solitary and if or how he was planning on fixing them. They explored the process involved in considering releasing an inmate from solitary and they also mentioned what it takes to be thrown into solitary confinement.

This video is biased towards solitary confinement or segregation because they only talk about how it is bad for inmates but, their purpose is to show people that solitary confinement is not a good choice when it comes to controlling violent inmates. I believe they chose Maine State Penitentiary because the warden is trying to limit the number of inmates he has in segregation. Since 2011 in fact, the warden has cut down the number of inmates in solitary confinement by 50%. I chose this article because it gives me a close up of what happens in solitary confinement. I believe frontline is a reliable and trustworthy source.

This source is helpful to me because it shows me what I was looking for, life in solitary. I want to show people that solitary confinement is an outdated technique and that it needs to be reformed.

Sullivan, Laura. Timeline: Solitary Confinement in U.S Prisons. 26 July 2006. online article . 23 February 2015.

This article talks about the history of solitary confinement. Where it began, why it was started and how it has evolved to fit into today's prisons and jails. Solitary confinement began in 1829 as an experiment in Eastern State penitentiary in Philadelphia. They believed that people left in a stone cell with only a bible would use the time to repent and pray. Unfortunately this practice led people to commit suicide an go insane so it was slowly abandoned in the following decades. Solitary confinement was brought back in 1934 when the federal government opened Alcatraz to house the nations worst criminals. In 1983 two correctional officers are killed by inmates in two separate occasions in Marion Illinois prison. The warden placed the prison on "Permanent Lockdown" placing all of the inmates in solitary confinement. The inmates are no longer allowed to work, attend educational programs, or eat in the cafeteria. They are also not allowed to go outside to the yard. Several other states adopted the same restrictions. In 1989 the first Supermax (Pelican Bay prison in California) is built which is specifically designed to house inmates in isolation for 22 1/2 hours a day. They are allowed to go in a small concrete exercise pen for the other hour and a half. Afterwards multiple states including Oregon, Mississippi, Indiana, Ohio, Wisconsin and a dozen other states follow California's example. In 1995 a federal judge says that Pelican Bay is bordering on the edge of what is "humanely tolerable". He leaves it to the states to determine how to best incarcerate offenders. 1999 statistics show that more than 30 states are operating a Supermax-type facility and about .5% of their inmates are in solitary confinement while some others lock up about 20%.

I believe this source is credible because it is simply stating the facts. If it were opinionated I would be a little more cautious. Also it was written in 2006 which makes it a little more outdated so I will look for another article just to see what has happened lately since this article only goes to 2005. The URL is .org which means it is a non-profit source which is good. They wrote this article for the purpose of informing people about the history of solitary confinement.

I won't use the entire article since it isn't overly detailed but I will mention it when it comes to simply saying broadly what happened in a certain year.

Webster, Paul. "Controls over solitary confinement needed." 17 November 2014. CMAJ. Web page. 10 February 2014.

This article talks about the use of solitary confinement in Canada. Canada, like many other countries, uses solitary confinement as a punishment for unruly or dangerous inmates. They have come under review though for how they manage it. In some instances inmates mental and physical health have deteriorated while segregated. The group, United Nations Human Rights Committee Against Torture wants to see a change and requests their signature on the United Nations optional protocol which would give external review committees the ability to monitor solitary confinement inmates. If they signed they would be joining the 75 other countries who agreed to this.

I chose his article because it is unbiased, it simply states the facts. Also the article was recently updated on January 6, 2015. Along with that the author, Paul Webster, gives evidence for his claims and statements. He also wrote other articles, most of them relating to the health and well being of inmates and maternal and child health. Which means his focus is on the health and well being of multiple people including those in solitary confinement. The main purpose of this article to raise awareness about the possible dangers of solitary confinement and the groups that are trying to bring about a positive change in the care of inmates.

This writing will be of great help because I was looking for an article talking about a group or organization that is trying to bring about a change to how inmates are treated in regards to solitary confinement. Also I didn't want to just stick to the United States when talking about this since all over the world prisons and jails make use of solitary confinement. Right now I am for solitary confinement but it needs to be monitored so this article just strengthens my resolve. Reading this article made me realize that there are still prisons and jails out there that abuse the use of solitary confinement. Either they don't care how it is affecting the inmates or they do not know the dangers that come from it.

Annotated Bibliography Peer Review Claire

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