Annotated Bibliography Emilie Brouse

Writer's Memo:

I found this research to be particularly interesting because it really prompted me to take a step back and evaluate a lot about the methods of agriculture in use today- a topic that I wouldn't have otherwise given much thought toward. It interested me to learn about the approach to agriculture that modern society has taken- the industrial approach.

The part of my annotated bibliography that was surprisingly difficult was finding solid print sources.
Emilie: for future reference, I don't require print sources, web-based are fine, as long as 2 of them are scholarly — still, the skills to find print resources are good to have, so well done there. Hamann.

Next time, I would simply start earlier with the entire process overall.

The process that I used in this assignment was to highlight the goals and requirements of the Annotated Bibliography, begin researching sources for the topic of industrial agriculture online, then searched for sources in print. After I felt that I had sufficient information for the assignment, I began with the actual bibliography process of listing my sources in the correct MLA format. Last, I reflected and wrote the annotations.

Clunies-Ross, Tracey and Hildyard, Nicholas. The Politics of Industrial Agriculture. Florence: Routledge, 2013. February 2014. Print.

Farmers and policy-makers have recognized the need for change in our approach to agriculture. Since the second World War, agriculture in industrialized countries has undergone a revolution that has dramatically increased yields. Clunies-Ross and Hildyard suggest that, in spite of the increased yields, this food revolution is also responsible for many adverse impacts, such as: widespread degradation of the environment, production-related contamination of food with agrochemicals and bacteria, the routine abuse of farm animals, rural depopulation, loss of farmers from the land and the ruination of Third World economies with the development of unfair trading systems. Also at issue is the question of power– of who's in control of the land and what it produces. Most of the changes under discussion are said to actually contribute to the underlying causes of the damage. The result will only be greater intensification of farming, environmental destruction and inequality. There are no simple alternatives to industrial agriculture. There are, however, people all throughout the world who can work together to develop a new approach- an approach toward an agriculture that, in Wendell Berry's words, 'depletes neither soil nor people'.

I think that The Politics of Industrial Agriculture is a greatly useful read. It presents the fact that sustainable agriculture can mean different things to different people and suggests really taking a closer look into whose interests are benefiting and whose are suffering. The information presented is current and reliable and the source unbiased- it was written by an ecologist. The purpose set forth by Hildyard and Clunies-Ross in The Politics of Industrial Agriculture was to inform consumers of the revolution that's occurred in agriculture in the last 40 years and the negative effects that followed. In chapter one, they propose that the very basis of agriculture is being undermined by the expansion of the wider industrial economy, the "energy balance sheet" is paid little attention, and that global warming threatens to render many areas either less productive or completely unproductive agriculturally. I found this analysis completely relevant to the argument at hand.

The Politics of Industrial Agriculture fits into my research because it addresses the major impacts that industrial agriculture has on everyone from farmers and workers to animals in third world countries. The spectrum of the negative impact it presented was very influential and helped to further my passion for the cause. I'll use this source in my research project to impact my readers with the ugly nature of the actual processes it describes.

n.p. Sustainable Table. Grace Communications Foundation, 1997. Web. February 2014.

The articles at provide many solid arguments in favor of making a big shift in the way in which agribusiness' large-scale and factory farms produce food that can be harmful to our health, the health of the local environment, and the community's economy. They promote a shift to more a sustainable, ethically responsible approach to the agriculture system through discussion of health benefits for consumers: a shift away from foodborne illness-related issues and other risks associated with industrial agriculture, as well as the environmental pollution it produces. The Sustainable Table strongly encourages the restoration of environmental balance in our approach to agriculture worldwide. They claim that we can help effect a transition to a sustainable food future through taking actions like making more sustainable food choices, signing petitions and fighting for bills that support the initiative.

This website provided a lot of good information relative to my argument for sustainable agriculture. The information is credible, reliable and unbiased. It comes directly from a foundation that's working currently to build public awareness in food, water and energy systems. This is apparent in the Environment online portion of the Sustainable Table site when it states that, "In a healthy farm system, agriculture works in harmony with the natural environment." The Grace Communications Foundation works with like-minded non-profits and academic institutions and is run by longtime environmental advocates. The goal of the Grace Communications Foundation is to educate consumers and advocate for healthier policies in environmental and public health.

The Sustainable Table website fits into my research in that it gave me a solid foundation to validate my argument. It helped shape my argument with its' credible, informative content. I'm looking forward to using the Sustainable Table as a source of in my research project because it's proven helpful already in providing a lot of great facts that help strengthen my approach toward the argument in general.

Boody, George and DeVore, Brian. BioScience. Vol. 56, No. 10. Ewing: University of California Press, 2006. February 2014. Print.

The issue of the BioScience monthly journal, entitled "Redesigning Agriculture", is an American Institute of Biological Sciences Publication that presents the significant costs associated with an industrial approach to agriculture. It suggests that this approach relies on a disconnect between crops and livestock and an emphasis on maximizing production- excluding all else. This break, suggest Boody and Devore, has created a highly dysfunctional nutrient cycle. A significant portion of these nutrients, along with other pollutants, leave our farms in the form of water and air pollution. Agriculture must be redesigned in order to sustain our farm systems, and these farmers need incentive and reinforcement from society. The discussion of ethics must be applied to the research and practice of agriculture.

I find this source to be absolutely useful in my argument for sustainable agriculture. It's unique in that it's an actual hard copy source- one that can be, at times, difficult to discover. The information presented proved reliable and valid, and the author was absolutely objective. The goal of BioScience, as a whole, is to publish timely and authoritative overviews of current research in biology, accompanied by essays and discussion sections on education, public policy, history, and the conceptual underpinnings of the biological sciences.

This journal fits into my research because it presents timely and authoritative overviews in regard to my focal issue. It's helpful in that it presents a lot of great research and references to other related essays and discussions. I plan to use the Bioscience journal in my research project with references to more informative articles on the subject of agriculture. It definitely changed the way I think about the ethics and philosophy of agricultural practices as a whole.

Bird, G. W. and Ikerd, John. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. Vol. 529. Sage Publications, Inc, 1993. February 2014. Print.

Though U. S. agriculture has been very productive during the past fifty years, a number of unexpected consequences have been detrimental to the long-term interests of our nation's agriculture and natural resources. In response to this issue, the Food, Agriculture, Conservation and Trade Act of 1990 mandates that the U. S. Department of Agriculture conduct research and initiate education programs on alternative agricultural systems. These must be productive, economically viable, and environmentally sound by conserving natural resources, making optional use of on-farm resources, and enhancing the quality of life for society as a whole. The Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE) Program is an important initiative for development of alternative agricultural practices and systems of production. Twenty-first-century U.S. agriculture must develop new methods of research and and policy initiatives, as well as educate for future generations of agriculture.

The American Academy of Political and Social Science is useful in my project because it offers a lot of insight the production methods used in agriculture today, which sets it apart from some of the other sources listed. The information is reliable and objective with a lot of great references to those in the field of agriculture. The goal of the Academy of Political and Social Science is to promote the progress of social sciences by informing the public with research on contemporary political, economic, and social issues.

I think that this source absolutely fits into my research on industrial agriculture and helps shape my argument because it presents a lot of good information in regard to the political side of agriculture in our country. It helped me to become better informed on the policies in action and in question. It prompted me to consider the politics of agriculture in a way that I'd never done before.

n.p. USCUSA. Union of Concerned Scientists, 2012. Web. February 2014.

On their website, the Union of Concerned Scientists states that today, there are a growing number of agricultural experts (like farmers, scientists and policy makers) that wish to pursue more sustainable methods. They view industrial agriculture as a dead end- a "mistaken application to living systems of approaches better suited for making jet fighters and refrigerators." The impacts of this process on public health, rural communities and on the environment make it an entirely unsustainable way to grow our food. There are better, science-based methods available. We must work to eliminate monoculture, confined animal feeding operations, hormone, insecticide and herbicide use and the use of chemical fertilizers.

I think the Union of Concerned Scientists most definitely proves itself useful source in my research of this important issue. It's wholly credible and reliable because the information is posted directly from the scientists themselves, which makes it unique in regard to some of my other sources. The purpose of the source, collectively, is to combine technical analysis and effective advocacy to create innovative, practical solutions for a sustainable future.

The Union helps to shape as well as validate my argument with the work of the many credible, experienced scientists it presents in the realm of sustainable agriculture. It assures me that my stance on the issue is valid, and gives a lot of evidence of which I can rely upon in my argument. I'll use the Union as a great educational resource in my project that I know I can always trust.

Horrigan, Leo, Lawrence, Robert S. and Walker, Polly. Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 110, No. 5. Organic Consumers Association, 2002. February 2014. Print.

The industrial agriculture system currently consumes fossil fuel, water, and topsoil at unsustainable rates. It contributes to numerous forms of environmental degradation, including air and water pollution, soil depletion, diminishing biodiversity, and fish die-offs. The factory style of animal agriculture creates negative environmental and public health effects, including pollution from the high concentration of animal wastes and damage caused by use of antibiotics. There are also numerous human health problems associated with current food production methods. These systems could become more sustainable through better nutrient and soil management, no-till and low-till farming, crop rotation and coverage and integrated pest management.

I find Environmental Health Perspectives useful in my research because it provides a lot of good points as to what's wrong with industrial agriculture. The information is objective and reliable and from a source whose goal is to campaign for health, justice, sustainability, peace and democracy.

This piece on industrial agriculture works for my argument because it further defines the idea of sustainable agriculture. It will help me to express the importance of putting new agriculture practices into action. I'll use Environmental Health Perspectives as a source for information on sustainability and organic farming in my research project. This source further exemplified my adherence to the expressed need for a shift in the way we approach agriculture as a nation.

Halden, Rolf U. MS, PhD and Schwab, Kellogg J. PhD. National Commission on Industrial Farm Animal Production. Pew Commission on Industrial Farm Animal Production, 2008. Web. February 2014.

As our population increases, we become more and more aware of the finite nature of our world’s resources and of the impacts that our industries ensue upon those resources, as well as on human health. Industrial farm operations impact water, soil, and air. Of most concern is the pollution of ground and surface water resources with nutrients, industrial and
agricultural chemicals, and microorganisms, the use of freshwater resources, the contamination and degradation of soil, the release of toxic gases and odorous substances, as well as particulates and bioaerosols containing microorganisms and pathogens. The Commission researched these issues and discovered the resulting impacts on both human health and ecosystems are detrimental.

The National Commission on Industrial Farm Animal Production proved useful in my research of industrial agriculture because it provided more insight into the side of the issue regarding the use of animals. It's a reliable and unbiased source that works to conduct a comprehensive, fact-based and balanced examination of key aspects of the farm animal industry.

This source fits into my research with the information provided regarding animal use in agriculture. It's really helpful because it's an entity completed devoted to the issue of farm animal production. I'll use it for reference when I provide argument against the current methods in use with farm animals in agriculture. It changed how I saw animal use in agriculture by opening my eyes to the way in which meat actually goes from the farm to the table.

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