Annotated Bibliography K Wong

"BODY AND IMAGE; One Size Definitely Does Not Fit All" New York Times by Mary Deunwald 22 June 2003. 18 Feb. 2015

In this news article from the New York Times it clearly brings to the understanding of body image. It clearly notes that one size does not fit all in their title. Mary starts off the article with the understanding of how body and image is portrayed now compared to how it was many decades ago. It begins with a comparison of Marilyn Monroe and Barbie. "Marilyn Monroe wore a size 14''; ''If Barbie was a real woman, she'd have to walk on all fours''; and ''The average woman weighs 144 lbs. and wears between a 12-14.'' Such body shape that Barbie has cannot and will never be able to be applied to a human being. Each enhancement of specific body parts are not natural. The pressure of body and image now a days have put both women and men under the influence that thin is good. Some people are known to be naturally thin based on their metabolism and eating habits, but considering that most go to extremes about adopting excessive dietary habits can be bad for the body. This new article brings upon new movements that are pushing the obsession of being thin and skinny. This article provides a positive aspect to movements that correlate between what may be ideal and what may not be ideal. Mary Deunwald states "In fact, weight experts point to signs that a weakening obsession with skinniness can lead to a stronger attraction to fitness." It's pushing non-idealistic views to something that may be considered a healthier alternative. The act of pushing is that now such body and image portrayed in magazines considerably too thin or fat-shaming.

This news article is published by the New York Times. It is dated June 22, 2003 and has references but does not directly have a function link to provide a source. There are many quotes/comments by those who are majorly promoting the alternative way of eating/thinning down. The author Mary Duenwald, is an editor for the New York Times and has written articles based on health and science issues.[[/div]]

At first glance, this article didn't seem to be portraying a positive view on body and image. When looking at the body and image, as readers we can understand that today it is the most influential part of our lives. As I read on in this news article I gained many insights on how there is a strong movement for those who believe that there shouldn't be such thing as fat-shaming. The idea of everybody comes in different shapes and sizes come to mind. This article was a complete different view compared to Sheila Lintott's paper due to the fact that this ended with a more positive note that there is an alternative lifestyle that can be chosen and it doesn't have to be a mental illness.[[/div]]

"DSM Panel Considers Ways to Clarify Diagnostic Criteria for Eating Disorders" JAMA Journal of the American Medical Assosciation 9 June 2010. 23. Feb 2015

JAMA provides the DSM panel is clarifying what diagnostic criteria is considered for eating disorders. It has stated that some psychiatrists have argued over taking a group of eating disorders and putting them into specific categories to help clinicians and patients. Such categories are not specific since the category of EDNOS ranges from many similarities that derives into being an eating disorder. There are studies where Stanford University in California has found that 61.6% teenage girls were diagnosed to be under the category of EDNOS because they do not mark off as being anorexic and bulimic, yet they have criteria to be hospitalized. The University of Minnesota, in Minneapolis has found that patients diagnosed as EDNOS still hold similar aspects to those who are diagnosed with anorexia and bulimia.

This source is valid and credible because it is published by JAMA, the Journal of the American Medical Association. It isn't necessarily for those who aren't Medical physicians, but it is a valid source in narrowing down specifics of my concern. They are in an attempt to narrow down eating disorders and what treatments/criteria would have to be considered.

I felt that this source was difficult to understand, but after interpreting what studies and research have been done, it seems as though there still isn't enough information on being able to specify what is considerably an eating disorder. It is known that there are categories that those who don't fit under anorexic and bulimia to be under EDNOS. Yet each diagnostic still holds similar aspects to one another.

"Eating Disorders" National Institute of Health and National Eating Disorders Assosciation American Psychiatric Association 19 Feb. 2015

Those who suffer from eating disorders are usually obsessed with food and their body weight. They tend to regulate how much they intake and how much they feel is still "too fat". Eating disorders affect more than several million people at any given time as the journal states. It is most common in women between the ages of 12 and 35. When it comes to eating disorders, there are three main types of, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. Those who have anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are perfectionists (OCD types) who have very low self-esteem, causing actions such as regulating lower than normal intake. Sometimes such fear of gaining weight and continue to feel overweight may lead to self-starvation (malnutrition) which can take their lives. People who suffer eating disorders typically don't know or want to admit that it is a problem. The American Psychiatric Association states that anorexia nervosa are diagnosed in patients who weigh at least 15 percent less than normal healthy weight for their expected height. Typically people with anorexia nervosa don't maintain a normal weight and refuses to eat. The listed symptoms are provided in the link above. As for bulimia nervosa the patient usually don't have a specific weight. They can be underweight, normal, overweight, and obese. Those with bulimia eat frequently and possibly eat over thousands of calories but after the binge eating stops they begin to feel the fear of gaining weight. This is where they turn to purging and laxatives. Sufferers tend to hide their binges, they're behavior may go unnoticed even towards close ones. The listed symptoms are provided in the link above. Treatments are both emotional and physical health through psychotherapy and having provided guidance.

This is very credible and valid source from what the CRAAP test and what the American Psychiatric Association has provided. There is no specific date written, but what it lists is background information to the matter of concerns at hand. This source helps narrow down the specifics to what is considered an eating disorder and what appearance and consequence it comes with.

After reading through this source I felt that it provided much detailed information about the mindset that most people with eating disorders have. I never thought that it would be possible to know that one who refuses to eat would not know that one has a problem. The list of consequences with pro-long abuse of the disorders comes with life threatening issues. This pushes me further concern for those who may not know that they have an eating disorder. Such eating disorders are seen to have taken over their lives without no one noticing or themselves even noticing. It was an abundance of insights behind what comes with prolonged abuse.

"Pro-Anorexia Sites Are Selling Bracelets to Promote Eating Disorders" BuzzFeed by Julie Gerstein 27 March 2014. 18 Feb. 2015

BuzzFeed (An American internet, news media company that was founded in 2006 in New York City) written by Julie Gerstein writes on major issues and concerns regarding wrong promotion. As the title explains, there are sites that promote the lifestyle of being Anorexic and Bulimic. In promotion of eating disorders, they are give overcoming eating disorders a wrong meaning. Julie states "According to its makers, “the pro-ana bracelet is worn as a reminder of staying true to your diet, and also to meet other [sic] Ana’s." and the product is out of stock. That shows how many people are influenced by the idea that being pro-ana and pro-mia is considerably a lifestyle and that they are not in any promoting eating disorders. Such Pro-Ana groups have perverted the meaning of what it means to overcome such eating disorders. Anti-eating disorders, advocates are not happy about the rising concept that using theses red bracelets as a sign of promoting eating disorder lifestyle.

In this article/web source it is published by BuzzFeed which is a notable company throughout the world wide internet/web. Julie Gerstein is the author of the article and has graduated from the University of Sussex with over 10 years of editorial experiences mostly relating to lifestyles. There are functional links and the article provides picture evidence.

I felt that this article pushed such concerns I had for argument. I do believe that most sites regarding Pro-Ana/Pro-Mia lifestyles have been influencing many to self-starve. Eating disorders are a mental illness and shouldn't be a goal to achieve.

"Pro-Anorexia Web Sites: The Thin Web Line" Reviewed by Charlotte E. Grayson Mathis M.D WebMD 20 Feb. 2015

The main issue brought up is the question "Are these websites fueling an epidemic?" Such websites created by young women who already have anorexia or bulimia (and any other eating disorders). They may be in recovery from one or both of the disorders. These websites have been trending and horrifying parents and doctors for several years now. Those who already have eating disorders look towards theses promoting websites because they feel judged and can't rely on those outside of the realm. Theses websites are said to be created for those who are looking for like-minded people, in a way they can express their opinion without being judged. Dr. Doug Bunnell believe that such websites are affecting those who are ill to stay ill. There were through surveys and tests on the study of anorexia sites. The results provided that it was clear that 40% of adolescents responding to the survey has visited pro-anorexia sites, but as many as 34% visited on pro-recovery sites and or neither sites. But, there are those who believe that it should become a lifestyle such influences misleads most viewers to glorifying the act as a lifestyle.

This website is widely common for it's notorious insights on self-diagnosing and medical concerns. This source has been reviewed by an M.D going by the name of Charlotte E. Grayson Mathis. It is a credible and valid source because it provides a study and a view from the other side as well.

I felt this brought an insight into how not all pro-ana/pro-mia sites glorify it as a lifestyle in perfection. Rather, there are also more pro-recovery sites compared to the opposite. There are many delusions and misinterpretations that come into play more than I thought would be. Such websites, I do believe is fueling an epidemic. There are many people who are easily influenced no matter if the information was valid or not. Such ideals of being thin and those who don't want to recover further is the matter of concern. The treatment matter of such illness is rather difficult because as stated by Doug Bunnell, PhD it is more difficult for recovery if the patient does not wish to recover. We need more movements in looking for treatment.

"Sublime Hunger: A Consideration of Eating Disorders Beyond Beauty" Hypatia by Sheila Lintott Volume 18, Number 4 Fall 2003 pp.65-86. 17 Feb. 2015

Sheila Lintott brings a perspective of a person with eating disorders. She brings a new background information about the state of mind of someone who has an eating disorder. The thoughts are portrayed through the imagery the reader gains. The most intense ways women are encouraged to enjoy sublime experiences is in many attempts to control their bodies through excessive dieting. The contributions to the problem of eating disorders exceed such certain beauty ideal is where women are afforded to experience the sublime. The reader sees an image of the situation at hand. Self-starving is being portrayed as the character wakes up at 5 AM feeling dizzy due to no food intake. The psychological aspect of thinking for someone who has an eating disorder doesn't think of hunger first. Instead of a typical idea of having a delicious meal Sheila mentions that the idea of eating doesn't come to mind, more so it's the opposite. The gain of being able to push through without eating, to push your body to its limits of hunger, to push through avoiding to eat all ends with the idea of being thin. Thinspiration (Thin inspiration) is what it's called. Sheila states that the idea that one feels guilty of giving into food can cause the fear of weight gain. If one were to devour food the second plan is to purge. There are ways around eating and not eating, what plays a big role in the situation is the act of feeling guilty. It helps the reader understand what mental state of mind. Many of those who are choosing this lifestyle abuse drugs such as laxatives on a daily basis because it is another way out. Which can lead to consequences within your digestive system.

This article is dated Fall/Winter of 2003 within Hypatia Volume 18 (Only pp 65-86). This is a paper arguing how women are encouraged to enjoy experiences such as hungry to get to their goal of being thin through excessive dieting. It is published by the Indiana University Press and can be found on Project Muse. The bases of this paper consist of references ranging from how tricks such as purging relieved some people of guilty thoughts of eating and other literary sources that relate to her argument or may go against it.

When I read this paper I felt a sense of what is being portrayed. This paper brings me to the mental state of mind of someone with an eating disorder. The way some people may choose an eating disorder and see it as a goal to achieve and even a lifestyle. As someone who has experience dealing with and having an eating disorder, I believe that Sheila Lintott's way of portraying actions and mental decisions is the state of mind of someone who has an eating disorder. My main concern is that those who had and beaten a eating disorder has accomplished and overcame such adversity where choosing an eating disorder as a lifestyle shouldn't be a choice. It shouldn't be seen as a lifestyle. There is not beauty beyond having an eating disorder.

"The Critical Shapes of Body Image: The Role of Culture and Family in the Production of Eating Disorders" Susan Haworth-Hoeppner Journal of Marriage and Family Vol. 62, No. 1 (Feb., 2000), pp. 212-227. 23 Feb. 2015

Susan Haworth-Hoeppner states that those within the family environment of having perfection, control, and enmeshment are the norms. It the development of self and self-image. Such cultures do transmit messages about thinness and body shape. Family usually alludes and convey such judgement to other family members and so on. Such influences from what the media portrays do influence women tend to begin disordered eating behaviors. Most women who fall under the categories of having self-control over choosing not to eat, such concepts and actions brings family to not be accepting and force provide food. Theses women begin to unacknowledged and judged where they further push their self-control of self-starvation. Sometimes such actions can also be easily hidden from family members where it isn't as noticeable as one would think. But, there are also those who consider that behavior cannot be directly accounted as cultural matters.

In this journal Susan Haworth-Hoeppner provides both the controversy of the topic and the concerns that associate with the topic. The source provides references that are dated but it still creates a validity to Susan's point. It is a journal under a valid site (JSTOR). It provides a reference page and does challenge the issues at hand.

The role of culture and family is where I believe such disordered thinking and eating habit begins. I was not expecting to see the insight of how family may come to find such actions as absurd and unacceptable. Also not to mention that what the media portray as thin and ideal to be a cultural aspect of the issue.

"Total In Control" Social Issue Research Centre 12 Feb. 2015

This is an excerpt explaining the concerns on the widespread promotion of eating disorder. The Social Issue Research Centre speaks of the rise of pro-ana and pro-mia websites. It begins with a taken excerpts from a pro-ana provides those who are stated to be on a quest of perfection while choosing the eating disorder lifestyle. SIRC explains that the internet can give two very different pictures depending on what is being searched. If you type "anorexia" and or "bulimia" many informational and help support will be provided, where as if you typed "Pro-Ana" and or "Pro-Mia" it's a haven for people who have eating disorders who are ruining their bodies for perfection. SIRC states that pro-anorexia/pro-bulimia websites have been known to be the antithesis of self-help websites. Instead they push for thinspiration (thin inspiration) and perfect body ideals where in reality their lives start is on the line. Theses sites are not for those that admit they have an eating disorder, but for those that believe being anorexia and bulimia is a way of life, a place for those who do not wish to recover. But to clear some term misunderstandings "pro-ana"/"pro-mia" do not necessarily mean it is in promotion of anorexia/bulimia but it is promoted for that already have it who want to be triggered in becoming better anorexics/bulimics. Most claim that they are considerably in self-control rather than self-harm. But not only do theses sites reveal the insights of theses websites, but also all the delusions and hypocrisies that come with it.

This excerpt does not have a specific written date or author, but it is under the publications of the Social Issue Research Centre and the weblink does consist of ".org" which is a noncommercial organization website. It may not have functional links, but they provide title of such excerpts taken from pro-ana/pro-mia websites. They have social media/emails where readers may contact them about any issues regarding the excerpt/information provided.

Reading this excerpt brings insights to both sides of concern. It thoroughly helps provide understanding for the pro-ana/pro-mia culture and why they do what they do. SIRC evens states that we as readers and those who believe that it's a concern should be more constructive in tackling our own perspectives before alluding to condemning pro-ana/-pro-mia websites in their own delusions and dangerous aspirations.

Annotated Peer Reviews K.Wong

Unless otherwise stated, the content of this page is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License