Annotated Bibliography Livia

Gregory, Sean. "Some College Athletes Will Now Get Paid - a Little." Time. Time, 7 Aug. 2014. Web. 11 Feb. 2015. <http://time.com/3089288/ncaa-college-athletes-pay/>.

This article focuses on arguments surrounding a relatively recent (August of 2014) vote made by the NCAA to allow 65 teams from the "Big 5" power conferences (ACC, Big 10, Big 12, Pac 12, and SEC) to make their own rules. According to the article, this vote allows these selected teams to offer student-athletes not only a scholarship, but the full cost of attendance (extra money for food, clothing, trips to the movie theater, etc.). This subsidy could amount to student-athletes receiving an additional $2,000 to $5,000. The author, Sean Gregory, describes some of the arguments surrounding this vote including differing opinions of several University Presidents who run Division 1 sports programs. The main argument Gregory combats towards the end of his article is whether or not stipends for athletes will destroy the competitive balance in college sports. He notes that a competitive balance doesn't really exist now because top high school players end up playing for the top schools. Gregory also states that many talented players are overlooked by the big schools and will continue to be overlooked; paying student-athletes will not make a difference in the competitive balance.

This article was published in August of 2014 (current) and relates to my research topic exactly. It contains two functioning links that serve its purpose. The intended audience is the readers of Time magazine and/or anyone interested in college sports (specifically D1 sports). The article was published by Time (well-known magazine). The author, Sean Gregory, is a senior writer for Time magazine and has covered sports along with topics regarding the football concussion crisis and young baseball players in the Dominican Republic for over a decade. The purpose of this information is to inform readers about a new NCAA vote that allows a select number of universities to make their own rules regarding stipends for student-athletes.

This article is a good source for me to include in my research because of its credibility and usefulness. The recent publication of the article exposes new information to readers that would fit perfectly in my research paper. I will be able to use this source as a real-life example of giving stipends to student-athletes rather than rationalize possible situations. It also includes opinions from several University Presidents of D1 schools on this topic that would add emotion and first-hand knowledge of what may happen as a result of this vote.

"Student-Athlete Benefits." NCAA. NCAA, 22 Nov. 2013. Web. 17 Feb. 2015. <http://www.ncaa.org/about/resources/finances/student-athlete-benefits>.

This article summarizes the benefits that student-athletes, specifically D1 and D2 athletes, receive for being part of a sports program. In particular, the article outlines the educational, financial, and medical benefits athletes receive. The educational benefits range from scholarship program to degree-completion grants to internships. Some of the financial benefits include the NCAA Catastrophic Injury Insurance Program as well as other insurance programs that help student-athletes with unmet financial needs. In all, the article includes a numerous amount of different health, financial, and educational programs offered to D1 and D2 student-athletes.

This article was written by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and updates its content annually. The URL address ends in ".org", therefore, relaying its credibility as a top-level domain non-profit organization. There are no links included in the article. The intended audience may be intended for college student-athletes, college coaches, and anyone interested in the intents of the NCAA. The purpose of this information is to inform the reader about the educational, financial, and health benefits D1 and D2 student-athletes receive as being part of a sports program.

Since my research topic is based on the NCAA, this source is incredibly important. It outlines numerous benefits student-athletes receive, which I will be able to refer back to as I go deeper into my research. This source provides factual evidence that I will be able to use as support in my paper.

"Division I Schools Spend More On Athletes Than Education." USA Today. Gannett Satellite Information Network, Inc., 14 July 2013. Web. 17 Feb. 2015. <http://www.usatoday.com/story/sports/ncaaf/2013/01/15/division-i-colleges-spend-more-on-athletes-than-education/1837721/>.

This article focuses on how public universities who compete in NCAA D1 sports spend as much as six times more per athlete than they spend to educate students. According to the article, spending by athletic departments rose more than twice as fast as academic spending (per-student basis) between the years of 2005 and 2010. The inclusion of factual statistics supports the main claim in that schools with top-tier sports programs concentrate more on building that sports program up to finance the school in its entirety than it does on building students' education.

The article was published in July of 2013 (relatively recent) and provides insight on a different perspective pertaining to money and student-athletes. There is one relevant and functioning link. The intended audience is the readers of USA Today and anyone with an interest in sports. Although, there is no cited author, the article was published by a popular newspaper. The purpose of this information is to inform readers about the startling finding that D1 schools spend as much as six times more money (on average) on their sports programs rather than students' education.

Even though there is no citation of an author, I believe that this source will be beneficial for me to use in my research. It contains information regarding expenditures of D1 schools and how the focus seems to be shifting from education to the betterment and maintenance of college sports programs. I think this article provides a crucial insight on the growing business of college athletics.

Abbey-Pinegar, Erin. "The Need For a Global Amateurism Standard: International Student-Athlete Issues and Controversies." Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies 17.2 (2010): 341-65. Project MUSE. Web. 17 Feb. 2015.

This article discusses the major differences/implications surrounding the domestic and international college athletes. The author, Erin Abbey-Pinegar, claims that due to differences in amateurism standards in different countries, there is no longer competitive equity.

Daugherty, Paul. "Colleges Athletes Already Have Advantages and Shouldn't Be Paid." Sports Illustrated. Sports Illustrated, 20 Jan. 2012. Web. 20 Feb. 2015. <http://www.si.com/more-sports/2012/01/20/no-pay>.

This article explores the advantages student-athletes receive, which, in turn, explains why they shouldn't be paid. The author, Paul Daugherty, incorporates his experience as a college professor of how students in his Advanced Reporting class struggled to keep up with schoolwork, student debt, juggling several jobs, and lack of sleep. He compares this with the life of a college student-athlete and explains that as an athlete (specifically a football or basketball player), you not only get a full, free ride at a university, but many perks as well. Some of these perks include taking chartered jets to away games, staying in first-class hotels, receiving individual tutors and having study tables, being enrolled in classes designed to keep the athlete eligible, and having compliant and complicit professors who are interested in your sports career.

Harker, Patrick T. "Student Athletes Shouldn't Unionize." The New York Times. The New York Times, 1 Apr. 2014. Web. 21 Feb. 2015. <http://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/02/opinion/student-athletes-shouldnt-unionize.html?_r=0>.

Human, Ramogi, and Ellen J. Staurowsky. The Price of Poverty in Big Time College Sports. Rep. NCPA, 2011. NCPA. NCPA, 2011. Web. 20 Feb. 2015. <http://www.ncpanow.org/research/body/The-Price-of-Poverty-in-Big-Time-College-Sport.pdf

This article explores a joint study done by the National College Players Association and Drexel University Department of Sport Management that blames college sports scandals on a "black market" created by unethical NCAA restrictions on college athletes. The study examines football and basketball teams from Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) colleges and calculates athletes' out-of-pocket educational related expenses related with a "full" scholarship, compares the living arrangements of players' scholarships to the federal poverty line and coaches'/athletic administrators' salaries, and uses NFL and NBA shared bargaining agreements to estimate the fair market value of FBS football and basketball players. This study particularly highlights college presidents' admission of their inability to improve college sports and calls for federal intervention to help yield a new model of amateurism in college sports. This new model would emphasize education, minimize violations, and allow players to seek commercial opportunities.

This report was published in 2011 and explores the statistics surrounding the basic college life of a student-athlete. Since this is a report, there are no links but many sources at the end. The intended audience is anyone who supports the National College Players Association, student-athletes, and the general public. The two authors who co-wrote this report are credible. Ramogi Huma is the NCPA President, and Ellen Staurowsky is a professor in Sports Management at Drexel University and has a doctorate in education. The report was published by the NCPA and takes a somewhat biased perspective on college student-athletes in terms of lacking resources. The purpose of this information is to inform its readers about the daily life of a college student-athlete and how, despite debate, struggle financially. It provides factual evidence and displays credibility throughout with interviews/opinions of several college sports coaches/athletic directors.

This report provides me with a different perspective surrounding the financials in college sports. Due to its credibility and use of statistics to support its information, I will definitely be using it as one of my sources in my research paper to

Annotated Bibliography Peer Review Livia

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