Annotated Bibliography LM

Hediger, Heini. Wild Animals in Captivity. New York: Dover Publications, 1964. Print.

In this publication, the author talks about how animals that are born in the wild and brought in to captivity are distraught. Their lives are turned upside down and they are forced to live a life they are not used to which can cause a psychotic break down. The publication also looks at how animals who aught to be living in the wild but were born in captivity show no change in the physical and mental state. The book also takes a look at how animals feed in the wild versus how they are fed in captivity. For the most part, the book is comparing how to the different lifestyles compare to each other.

The book is published in 1964, which means that the information is out dated and may be slightly misleading to those who are not thorough with their research. Heini Hediger is a Swiss biologist is most famously known for his work in animal behaviour. There are no functioning links, but there are outside sources where the author gets his research from other publications. The book distinguishes the difference in how the animals live whether that is completely wild, wild animal brought into captivity or a wild animal that is born in captivity.

This article works well with my research because it shows both sides of the controversy over animals. Going into this topic, I must have an open mind. An animal may be taken into captivity in order to help the animal from falling to extinction. The book shows an unbiased opinion towards this topic, so that the reader is clearly able to see both sides of controversy. With my topic, it is important that both sides be displayed even when I have picked a side, that way it does not show that I have a biased opinion or am only giving facts that make the reader/audience lean a certain way.

Malamud, Randy (1998). Reading Zoos: Representations of Animals and Captivity. New York University Press.

In this article, Randy Malamud goes on to express how animals in captivity not only affect not only the animals but the humans as well. We act as though we are powerful enough to harness their lives and cage them up in the middle of the city, hundreds of miles from where they ought to be living. This article represents humans violating a natural order that was never meant to be broken by the likes of mankind.

The article is not very current, which means the information could be misleading. The information can still be viable because the animals in zoos are still being poorly treated. The article comes from the New York University Press, which is a renowned site for publications since 1916. Malamud studies culture and the affect it can have on animals and has produced other books in this manner.

This article can be important to my work because it gives a better view on not only how the animals are affected but how the people involved in this are viewed. Majority of people who are looking into how zoos are treating animals don’t look at the humans very often. Maybe the humans are being forced into treating the animals harshly by a stronger force. These people may believe that the zoos are helping the animals from being harmed out in the wild, or from going extinct.

Olney, Peter J. S. "Reintroduction of Captive-Born Animals." Creative Conservation: Interactive Management of Wild and Captive Animals. London: Chapman & Hall, 1994. Print.

This specific chapter from the text, Creative Conservation, speaks about how they are multiplying the populations of certain species in zoos and then releases them back out into the wild. The animals were only released over parts of the United States, Canada, New Zealand and Australia. With that, the animals were not released as a species, but projects for select few.

The chapter comes from a well-known publishing site. The book was copyrighted in 1994, making it a fairly recent publication. It is hard to be sure who exactly wrote this specific chapter from the book, but you can be sure it’s a credible source because of the book the chapter is coming from.

This chapter can be very helpful to my writing. It shows how zoos are attempting to do a good thing for the animals and not put them on show for the world to see. There is always a lot of negativity surrounding animals in captivity, but when a zoo is trying to repopulate a species by taking them in to captivity and away from danger that could be causing extinction there should be no harm to the animals. When talking about this topic, I usually find myself focusing on the negative side of this topic and I think this chapter can shed some light on a negative situation.

Studies of the psychology and behavior of captive animals in zoos and circuses.Hediger, H.Oxford, England: Criterion Books, Inc. (1955). vii 166 pp.

This publication speaks out about how animals are affected in circuses and when they are in the captivity of zoos. The book talks about how the mental abilities are affected and how their maternal behavior changes. The author goes over many different animals in order to have a broad field of study. The traits of animals in the wild are compared to those of domestic animals and the psychology that comes from the animals being raised in a circus.

This book comes from one of my previous citations making both of them a more credible source. Heini Hediger is a well renowned biologist who is known famously for his study of animals in captivity and how they are affected. Unfortunately, the publication is slightly outdated since its publication date was 1955.

This publication is going to be very supportive towards any claims that animals are not meant to be kept in captivity. The book gives good insight into how the animals psychologically change because of the change in their environment. The book also explains how training the animals cause their expression and overall behavior to completely change due to the change in their everyday life. Although this is a good source, it needs to be used properly in order to not manipulate the audience.

Welcome to Born Free USA. Web. 19 Feb. 2015. <>.

This website has many different facts and articles about animals in captivity. They include links to animals in entertainment, captive exotic animals, fur as fashion, wildlife trade, pet shops and trapping and fur. This website is based mostly on how animals in captivity is bad, and doesn’t stray much from there. It does not go on to talk about how captivity could help a endangered species.

This source is fairly credible considering the URL When a URL ends in “.org” you know that it is a scholarly source. You can look on the website and go to the “about us” link and see all the people included on the board of directors. There is no date to when the information was published but at the bottom of the page it has 2003-2015, the time that the organization has been around. There is also a link to see which famous people support this organization and look back on the history of the organization.

This is going to be a very important source for me. It gives specific examples as to what is happening to the animals when they are in captivity. An audience is going to want credibility on a topic like this and this topic will have a larger emotional tie if there are examples to follow the acquisitions. This link also covers many different areas, from the wild exotic animals to the animals that are being trapped out in the wild for their fur.

One Green Planet. Web. 19 Feb. 2015. <>.

This website talks about what happens to animals after they are taken into captivity. The animals lose their ability to display natural behaviors. Their lives are filled with stress and boredom. Zoos are not like sanctuaries where abused and abandoned animals are taken in, in order to live out the rest of their lives to their full potential. The article also talks about what happens to the animals after they are no longer wanted by the zoos because they bring in a new version of the animal they already have.

Just like the previous website that I used, this one also ends the URL in “.org” which makes the website a credible source. The website focuses on the people that commonly read the website. As the other website had, you are able to learn more about the website and the people who are behind it. There are no dates as to when the specific write ups were published on the website.

This will be a huge part of my research as it shows more background info has to what happens to the animals once they are no longer wanted. I think that we focus a lot on the negativity that surrounds the animals that are in the zoos and not on what happens to the animals once they are no longer wanted.

National Geographic. National Geographic Society, 4 Feb. 2015. Web. 19 Feb. 2015. <>.

This article from National Geographic has brought to reader’s attention that a whale that has lived an aquarium since 1970 has been listed as an endangered species since 2005. The article states that this type of orca has been listed under the Endangered Species Act for many years but they are unable to release her back into the wild since she has been in captivity for so long. Putting her back into the wild would put her at risk for aggression and disease.

The article was published on February 4, 2015 making it a new source that is very credible. The article also comes from the National Geographic, which is a well renowned wild life journal. The website is focused mostly towards the audience that reads the National Geographic. Brian Clark Howard, who served as the editor for and E/The Environmental Magazine and has written for Popular science,, and is the co-author of six books, wrote the article.

This is important to my research because it shows that even though this whale is in captivity and was stated as an endangered species long after she was brought in that you cannot just release the animal into the wild. There are so many other precautions that should be looked at. Since the animal was in captivity for so long, would the whale be able to survive in its new habitat? Would the whale succumb to disease.

Annotated Bibliography Peer Review LM

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