Annotated Bibliography Nw

Research Topic

Is mass-producing composting really helping the environment and economy?

Bearse, Kylie. "Study: Composting In Minnesota Good For Economy, Environment" Minnesota CBS WCCO, 9 February 2015.

The article provides the results from a study that the Minnesota Composting Council conducted recently on the Minnesota composting industry. The results showed that the industry is worth $148 million and provides more than 700 jobs. At "The Mulch Store", they spends about a year steaming, decomposing, and churning the compost before it becomes something that Anne Ludvik, the director of organic recycling development at The Mulch Store, calls "Black Gold". Composting now only keeps organic materials out of our fast-filling landfills, but it also has remarkable benefits for our environment. Composting is good for erosion control, water quality control by adding organic materials back into the soil. Composting also helps reduce the need for pesticides and herbicides. It also helps plants with drought resistance and water retention abilities.

This article was posted on February 9th, 2015. Its only a few weeks old, so no need for revisions yet. All links are functional, including the linked pop-up ads… The intended audience is for every household who throws away organic material that can be recycled. The author is Kylie Bearse published by WCCO News. The author is a reporter and sought out sources to help her gather information to be able to write this article. The information comes from people who are directly related to the composting industry in Minnesota such as directors and employees. No spelling or grammatical errors. The purpose of the information is to teach and to persuade to start your own compost.

This article is helpful because it is a locally owned business. The compost is being made right here in Minnesota. I feel that if more people start buying the compost that they are creating, they will really begin to see the benefits and maybe want to start their own compost.

Blum, Barton "Composting and the Roots of Sustainable Agriculture" Agricultural History Spring, 1992. Web. 18 February 2015

This article, which was written by Barton Blum, describes how composting is a waste management technique. Some items that can be considered for composting include sewage sludge, and vegetative and food wastes. Europeans were the first to discover the thought of composting to replenish the nutrients in the soil. Americans were aware of the fact that Europeans were using human and animal wastes, but there was plenty of new land here in America that they didn't have any concerns as to when and why they should replenish the nutrients being lost in the soil. Crop yields became dangerously threatened in the mid nineteenth-century. A new idea was approached and conservation began. And so stockpiling of organic wastes such as forest leaves and seaweed had begun. This was a great idea to save these products because the economy was essentially suffering. When crop yield declined in the mid 19th century, they needed to find a solution to fix the problem quickly. After the dust bowl period in the 1930's did people really begin to grasp the concept that something needed to be done. Erosion was happening rapidly because of the lack of nutrients.

This article was published in the spring of 1992. No known revisions. Older sources will work. Links are all functional. The intended audience(s) are people who are interested in science history and relevance. Appropriate level. The author is Barton Blum. The source comes from a .org website making it reliable. The information comes from a textbook. Information is supported by previous experiences in history. No errors. The purpose is to inform, and teach. The intentions are also clear.

This article provides vivid details of previous historical events that led up to people learning to compost organic materials. The article talks about the Dust Bowl in 1930 and how the people were greatly affected by the outcome. Erosion was a big issue when the settlers began to move west and began clearing out vegetation and forests. Composting is demonstrated in this article by explaining the wide variety of items people were using to create their composts.

Eng, Christina "Watching Our Waste Lines" Gastronomica: The Journal of Critical Food Studies Fall 2011. 18 February 2015

This article does a great job of pointing out how Americans throw out anything that doesn't look appealing to them. Or how most of them time a good portion of the produce harvested doesn't make it to consumers because of its appearance. The author uses the journal article and cites, "American Wasteland: How America Throws Away nearly Half of Its Food (and What We Can Do About It)" by Jonathan Bloom. Bloom uses the scenario in the Crazy Horse Canton Landfill. A pile of perfectly edible looking lettuce is thrown away. For multiple reasons from being damaged at a warehouse or it sat out too long to withstand shipping. The landfill handled two hundred tons of rejected, misbagged, and extra produce every day. It eventually had to be shut down because it could no longer handle anymore incoming "rejected" produce. The article goes on to explain how instead of taking up space in our landfills with produce, we should begin to create composts. Negligence on our part of throwing away produce instead of using the idea of reusing the materials is costing Americans money.

This information was published and posted in the fall of 2011. All of the links are functional. The information does relate to the topic by explaining how waste is hurting us rather than helping us when the correct steps aren't taken. The intended audience is consumers. The author is Christina Eng. Published by the University of California Press. The URL is a .org site. The information comes from the author who conducts his own research by visiting affected areas and consulting with experts. The purpose of this article is to be informative. Their intentions and purpose is clear.

This article is a real eye opener and makes you realize how much one person throws away instead of finding another use for it. This article has strong intentions to get people to understand the importance of creating an organic compost rather than throwing it away to be put into a landfill.

"Environmental Benefits" Environmental Protection Agency Revised 27 June 2014.

Composting gives poor soils the ability to regenerate some of the nutrients that it has previously lost. The article brings a new term to light, humus. Humus is a rich nutrient-filled material that increases the nutrient contents and helps the soil retain the moisture it needs. Compost helps repair contaminated soils. The compost has been shown that it has the ability to absorb odors and treat VOCs, semi volatile and volatile organic compounds. Composts help prevent pollution that have originated from landfills. The benefits of composting are endless. Reducing the need for more water, fertilizers, and pesticides are greatly reduced due to using compost of organic materials.

The information was revised in June of 2014, but there is no indication of the date it was originally posted. The information does relate to my topic by specifically providing benefits of composting. The Environmental Protection Agency published this source. They are definitely qualified to write about this topic. The URL is a .gov website making it extremely credible. No spelling errors. The purpose is to inform and to teach.

This source isn't very long, but it gets to the point of what the exact benefits of composting are. This a nice source because it cuts to the chase. If someone who was really interested in composting wanted to know the benefits of it, they could look at this source and not have to sort through a bunch of background information. The research has been done for this source and the facts have been published making it an easy read.

Scharff, J.W. "A Vital Element in Agriculture" Journal of the Royal African Society April, 1942. 18 February 2015

The author makes a point by stating, "Compost is the key to soil fertility by which the "Balance of Nature" can be restored." Sir Albert developed the process of composting and renaming it to the Indore Process because of his location when discovering this particular act. Compost is also referred to humus or sludge. The author states that composting isn't a new idea that just came about. He says that it has been known for countless centuries, especially in China and India.

The information was published in April of 1942 by Oxford University Press. The author is J.W. Scharff. The information has not been revised but is still very resourceful. All links are functional. The intended audience is anyone who is interested in the history of composting. The URL is a .org website making it credible. The information comes from a journal. The tone is unbiased and there are no spelling errors. The articles purpose is to be informative and to teach.

This article brings a significant amount of background and history into perspective. It highlights the beginning of the idea of composting and who initially thought of the idea. These are important pieces of information when wanting to be able to understand if this creation is helping us environmentally and economically.

Stafford, Sarah L. "The Impact Of Environmental Regulations on the Location of Firms in the Hazardous Waste Management Industry." Land Economics November 2000. 24 February 2015.

Stafford begins her article with a worthy note. Industries are being driven out of their current location in certain states due to the higher environmental standards. She gives an example of how companies in California are moving to Nevada because of less restrictive laws on the environment. In 1976, the first major law was passed to manage and address hazardous waste. it became known as the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Once a hazardous waste is produced it has to be managed in accordance with RCRA regulations. Environmental regulations also serve as restraints on the level of output of hazardous wastes. Before the passing of the RCRA in 1976, there were very few hazardous waste treatment plants. Total now, there are 1,548 facilities. Wyoming and South Dakota only have one plant, while California has 179 different facilities dealing with hazardous waste. In 1992, the facilities handled anywhere between 1 ton to over one million tons of hazardous materials and wastes.

This source was published in November of 2000. The information has not been revised. Older sources will work for my topic. All links are functional. The information answers sub-questions to my topic. The intended audience is anyone who may be interested in hazardous waste and where it goes. The information is at an appropriate level. The author is Sarah L. Stafford. It was published by the University of Wisconsin Press. The URL is a .org website. The information comes from the journal Land Economics. The language and tone seem unbiased but very factual. No spelling errors. The purpose is to inform and to teach. Stafford makes her intentions and purpose clear.

I believe that this source will be very helpful in conducting the rest of my research. The information that the author provides is surprisingly factual and goes to show just how much American's throw out. This is definitely a source that I can come back to for any unanswered questions that I may have about treatment facilities or anything else that may relate to hazardous waste.

Wagner, Travis. "Refraining Garbage: Solid Waste Policy Formulation in Nova Scotia. Canadian Public Policy December 2007. 24 February 2015.

Wagner begins his writing with stating the traditional approach of North America and how they have dealt with managing waste. This approach had been composed of dumping, burying, and burning. Between 1987 and 1989, North American media seen the solid waste problem as a "landfill crisis." In the summer of 1988 and also in 1989, medical waste began washing up on New York and New Jersey beaches. AIDS has been thought to be one of the contaminants in the medical waste. North America was running out of room for landfills. Exportation of wastes began, deadly and dangerous beach wash-ups were occurring, and the public's health became at risk. Landfills had begun to close because of the lack of ability there was to support the large amounts of waste.

This journal was published in December of 2007. The information hasn't been revised or updated. This is pretty current information, so it works. The information does relate to my topic again by providing facts about the amount of waste we produce. The intended audience is anyone who may be concerned about how much they are throwing away and what they can do to help. The author is Travis Wagner and published by the University of Toronto Press on behalf of the Canadian Public Policy. The information comes from the Canadian Public Policy The URL is a .org site. No errors. The purpose is to inform and to teach and maybe persuade you to watch how much waste you produce.

This article is also helpful for my research. It points out more landfills that had to be shut down because of the massive amounts of waste being produced. So much waste to the point that the landfills could no longer provide a space for all of it to go.

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