Annotated Bibliography Olivia Knutson

"Diet is associated with risk of depression" Science Daily. University of Eastern Finland, September 2013. Web. 12 February 2014

This article is based on a study conducted by the University of Eastern Finland. The study followed 2000 men. The results led researchers to believe that symptoms of depression can be greatly reduced with a healthy diet. All though this article never addresses the Mediterranean diet by name they define a healthy diet as a diet based on vegetables, fruits, berries, whole-grains, poultry, fish and low-fat cheese, which almost perfectly matches the Mediterranean diet. The diet was found to decrease the risk of developing depression and to help reduce symptoms for those who were diagnosed with depression. The article also states that those who have a healthy diet decrease their risk of developing depression. On the other hand the article found that those following an unhealthy diet based on processed meats, sugars, and sugary drinks were were more likely to show signs of depression.

This article is current. Has functioning links. Information is relevant because the study was based on a diet very similar to the Mediterranean. The intended audience is the readers of Science daily. The bases of this article is founded on a study by a University in Finland. The article did not state the author of the article. The purpose of this article is to inform people on natural ways to prevent depression.

This article makes a good point as it also shows the risks of following an unhealthy diet as well as the benefits of following a healthy one. When I started researching the Mediterranean diet I thought there would be some articles discussing the risks of a Mediterranean diet. For instance how this one discusses the risks of an unhealthy diet. I assumed there would be articles talking about the risks of a high protein or high fat diet. However, I never found any concerning the risks of the Mediterranean diet this article like all the rest only had good things to say about the benefits of following a diet like the Mediterranean diet.

Godman, Heidi. "Adopt a Mediterranean diet now for better health later" Harvard Health Publications. Harvard Medical School. November 2013. Web. 11 February 2014

This article article makes the claim that the Mediterranean diet has numerous health benefits such as lowering cholesterol, helping with weight loss, improving rheumatoid arthritis, and reducing the risk for developing Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes, and various types of cancer. The article says that to achieve maximum health benefits it is best to start the diet at a young age. However, if you are middle aged and currently on a not so healthy diet, it is not too late. Through a study of 10,000 middle aged women researchers found that women who adhered to a diet, that greatly resembled the Mediterranean diet, they were 40 percent more likely to live past the age of 70 without a chronic illness or physical or mental problems than the middle aged women who followed a more modern diet. According to Godman healthy food is one of the most powerful weapons we have to stave off illnesses and diseases that so often come with old age. The article claims there are massive amounts of evidence piling up as a testament to the benefits of the Mediterranean diet. Health experts hope more will adopt this diet. However, they warn to start out slow so as not to be overwhelmed with all of the sudden changes. Starting out slow increases your chances of making the diet stick, becoming a lifestyle change.

This article is current. Has functioning links. The article is very relevant to my topic. The intended audience is the readers of Harvard Health Publications. The author is the executive editor of /Harvard Health Letter/. She has been honored by many noteworthy associations including the American Heart Association. The information in this article comes from a report by the Annals of International Medicine. The reason of this article is to make people aware of the role food can play in warding off diseases and illnesses.

This article works well with my research as it brings to light all of the evidence that has been piling up from various researchers. The article brings up a good point as it says it is not too late to start eating healthier and following this diet even if you are middle aged. The article also has a good point when it advises those who wish to start this diet to go slow. Making small substitutions for healthier foods rather than taking the diet head on potentially leading to failure to remain on the Mediterranean diet. The article implies that the diet will be hard to stick to at first but with proper discipline it is a change worth making.

Kolata, Gena. "Mediterranean Diet Shown to Ward Off Heart Attack and Stroke" New York Times. Health. February 2013. Web. 10 February 2014

This article is based on a study conducted by researchers interested in the correlation between the Mediterranean diet and a lower risk of heart disease. The clinical trial was conducted on 7446 adults who had high risk of heart disease. The study participants were randomly divided into three groups. The first group was given a low fat diet and not much counseling or advice on how to stick to it. After the first group was struggling to stay with the low fat diet they were given counseling and encouragement to follow the diet. However, they still labored to maintain a low fat diet even with the coaching from nutritionists. The other two groups were put on the Mediterranean diet with immediate counseling and encouragement to improve adherence to the diet. Since the low fat dieters could not adhere to the diet as well as those on the Mediterranean diet the low fat dieters ended up following more of a modern American diet and the study essentially compared the modern diet to the Mediterranean diet. Researchers tested study participants on the Mediterranean diet with urine and blood samples to be certain they were following their assigned diet. The results of the study showed a 30 percent lower chance of heart disease for those who followed the Mediterranean diet. All though the success of the Mediterranean diet and decreasing heart related illnesses was shown in this study the researches do not know how the diet would affect adults with a low risk for heart disease. Some experts remain skeptical of the Mediterranean diet because it is a high fat diet and may not be the best for those who already have weight issues.

The article is current. It has functioning links. The article relates to my research topic quite well. The intended audience is the readers of the New York Times. The article was published by a renowned newspaper. The author of the article is a highly accredited writer for the New York Times who writes mainly on science and medicine. The information comes from cites such as the New England Journal of Medicine and the New York Times. The purpose of this information is to sell a newspaper as well as inform people of the possible benefits of reforming your diet.

This article makes a good point as it shows that not only is the Mediterranean diet healthy but it also is somewhat less difficult to stick to than other "heart healthy diets". The article also shows that there are critics of the Mediterranean diet and that to some people it is not a fool proof method to preventing heart disease. This was the only article I found in my research that had anything about the potential negative outcomes of the Mediterranean diet as it shortly discussed the diet being high in fat.

Mayo Clinic Staff. "Mediterranean diet: A heart-healthy eating plan" Mayo Clinic. Mayo Clinic. June 2013. Web. 9 February 2014

In this article the Mayo Clinic is advocating the Mediterranean diet as a way to reduce your risk of heart disease. The article discusses research conducted on 1.5 million adults. The study showed that adults on the Mediterranean diet were less likely to die from heart disease and some types of cancer. The study also showed the research participants were less likely to develop Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. In the article Mayo Clinic defines the Mediterranean diet as a diet largely based on plants and low in saturated and trans fats. The article also encourages eating more fish and less red meat, moderate amounts of red wine, and avoiding butter as well as high fat dairy products. The article makes the claim that your whole family can follow this diet. According to Mayo Clinic and this article the focus of the Mediterranean diet is fruits, vegetables, nuts, and grains.

The article is current. The information is relevant since it is on the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet. The intended audience is the readers of Mayo Clinic. The authors of this article are highly accredited doctors working for Mayo Clinic. The purpose of this article is to inform people of heart healthy diet plans. The information seems to be fact based since they are doctors conducting research for a nonprofit website and the article is based on a large study.

This article showed me just a few examples of the benefits of the Mediterranean diet as well as laying out a general definition of what the Mediterranean diet consists of. It was very helpful in convincing me that this is the topic I want to research as well as making me think about trying this diet. This article is very straightforward as it just gives the facts about the benefits of the diet and how to follow the it.

Pendick, Daniel. "Mediterranean-style diet linked to healthier arteries throughout the body" Harvard Health Publications. Harvard Medical School. January 2014. Web. 11 February 2014.

Pendick focuses on the arteries in this article and how the Mediterranean diet can help prevent damage to them. The main way the diet can promote artery health as shown by a randomized study known as PREDIMED, which stands for "prevention with Mediterranean diet" in Spanish. The study was published by the Journal of American Medical Association. they found that the Mediterranean diet can help prevent peripheral artery disease which is a hardening of the arteries that leads to multiple health afflictions. The peripheral artery disease affects as many as 12 million aging Americans. Pendick states that since the test that found the Mediterranean diet as a potential route to healthier arteries, was aimed at studying the prevention of heart disease and stroke that the results for the prevention of the peripheral artery disease are only preliminary although substantial. The article discusses a need for a specific study targeted at peripheral artery disease in order to provide more conclusive evidence. Even though the early results are very promising.

The article is less than a month old. The links are functioning. The information is very relevant. The intended audience is the readers of Harvard Health Publications. The author of this article is an executive editor for /Harvard Men's Health Watch/, he is a former editor and chief writer for /Cleveland Clinic Men's Health Advisor/. The information in this article comes from various reliable sources such as the Journal of American Medical Association and the Center for Disease Control. The purpose of this article is to promote the Mediterranean diet because of its potential for preventing yet another disease.

The focus of this article is on the health of the arteries of those who have been on the Mediterranean diet. The article makes it clear that this is new information and has not been tested as much as it should be but the resent study shows promising results for the prevention of the artery disease. This article made me realize that there could be many other benefits of the Mediterranean diet that I have not even considered researching. Yet again nothing but good things to day about the Mediterranean diet.

Wenk, Gary. "Can the Mediterranean Diet Treat Your Depression?" Psychology Today. Your Brain on Food. May 2012. Web. 11 February 2014

This article was written based off a three year study that followed participants with diagnosed depression as well as participants who did not have depression. The study was 3 years long because studies based on diet can take large amounts of time for results to become apparent. The study focused on the levels of a protein in the brain called BDNF. Unnatural levels of BDNF have been linked to several disorders such as epilepsy, autism, schizophrenia and depression. A study done on rats showed that diets high in natural fats such as fruits and nuts can raise BDNF levels improving cognitive abilities and mood. Likewise the study on rats showed that a diet high in unhealthy fats reduced levels of BDNF creating memory impairment, brain atrophy, and mood disorders. This article addresses the question of different types of fats having the same kind of effects on humans. The outcome of the three year study on humans showed that the Mediterranean diet has potential to reduce depression. The article states that following the Mediterranean diet for those with symptoms of depression could indeed boost your BDNF levels resulting in better brain function as well as reducing depression symptoms. The study found that the participants that had not been diagnosed with depression and had normal levels of BDNF had no change in their healthy levels of BDNF. The article also states that if a person does not have depression but continues to eat the "American diet" they are more likely to develop symptoms of depression. The article makes the claim that even though the individual elements of the Mediterranean diet are beneficial to the human body, it is the interaction of the individual elements of the body that provide the health benefits.

The article is current, only two years old. The links are functioning. The article is very relevant. The intended audience is the readers of /Psychology Today/. The author is a Ph.D. professor in the fields of Psychology & Neuroscience & Molecular Virology, Immunology and Medical Genetics at the Ohio State University. The information in this article comes from /Nutritional Neuroscience/ and /Psychology Today/. The reason for this article is to promote healthy eating.

This article, although brief, showed me that the Mediterranean diet can have many health benefits other than physical. This article has lead me to further research the effects of the Mediterranean diet. I had not considered the possibility that diet could have an impact on depression and other mental illnesses.

Whitney, Conner Middelmann. "Time To Take Milk Off The Menu?" Psychology Today. Nourish. March 2013. Web. 6 February 2014

This article discusses the results of a study on women that had been diagnosed with breast cancer. The study compared the mortality rate of the diagnosed women that consumed more high fat dairy products than those that did not consume as many high fat dairy products. Of the 1893 women in the study those who consumed higher amounts of dairy products had a 49% higher mortality rate. The article explains that the culprit for the higher mortality rate is not the milk itself rather the high estrogen levels in the milk caused by the milk harvested from pregnant cows. Pregnant cows have higher levels of estrogen. Women who consume dairy from cows with higher than normal estrogen levels risk increasing their own estrogen levels. The article also states that higher than normal estrogen levels caused by the consumption of fatty dairy products has also been linked to ovarian, prostate, and endometrial cancer. Whitney suggests the Mediterranean diet as a healthy alternative to the consumption of dairy. The Mediterranean diet traditionally is low on the consumption of processed dairy products, with the main sources of dairy coming from fermented dairy products such as yogurt, cheese, and goats milk.

The article is current, less than a year old. It has functioning links.The author of this article is an accredited, nutrition coach, health writer, and author. Her information comes from reliable accredited sources such as the Journal of the National Cancer Institute and PubMed. The information is relevant to the subject as the study of the risks of fatty dairy products leads to the healthier alternative of Mediterranean diet. The article seems fairly unbiased as the author states the limitations of the study as well as the results of the study.

As I was researching the health risks associated with dairy products I found this article and as I continued reading it led me to the idea that the Mediterranean could have many health benefits. This article provoked me to further research the Mediterranean diet and the more I researched the more interested I became in the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet. Hence, I changed my research topic from milk and health risks and benefits to the risks and benefits if the Mediterranean diet.

Writer's Memo

  • I found this research to be particularly interesting:

I found this research incredibly interesting because I had no idea that the Mediterranean diet could potentially have so many health benefits. Researching the diet was very inspiring to me to try the Mediterranean diet because of all of the benefits following the Mediterranean diet could provide.

  • This part of my annotated bibliography was surprisingly difficult:

Finding sources that were credible and not outdated was a challenge for me. A lot of the sources passed the CRAAP test but where outdated.

  • Next time I would do this differently:

I would choose a topic that had more on the adverse affects of following such a diet. When I started researching this topic I thought there would be more on the risks of following such a diet. Because it is a high fat diet I thought there would be some articles about the risks of a high fat diet. However, I found that all the articles encouraged the high fat Mediterranean diet because they are fats from natural sources.

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