Annotated Bibliography Rp

Effects Artificial Sweeteners in Food and Drink Annotated Bibliography

Artificial sweeteners—do they bear a carcinogenic risk?
There is no scientific proof aspartame causes cancer in humans. For newer artificial sweeteners, such as sucralose, it is too early to tell if there are carcinogenic risks.

Gain weight by “going diet?” Artificial sweeteners and the neurobiology of sugar cravings
In America, both a rise in obesity and consumption of no calorie sweeteners are happening. Saccharin and cyclamate are 2 artificial sweeteners that have high carcinogenic levels. Aspartame can me metabolized. Artificial sweetener became popular because it is hundreds of times sweeter than sugar and provides little to no calories. There is a positive correlation between artificial sweeteners and weight gain. Consuming sugar showed to keep energy consumption levels constant. Artificial sweeteners promote the consumption of sugar.

Possible neurologic effects of aspartame, a widely used food additive.
Consuming large amounts of aspartame has been shown to cause headaches, behavioral issues, and seizures in some humans. The negative effects of aspartame tend to show up if it is consumed in large amounts and/or people that are already at risk of neurological disorders consume it. Aspartame is safe to consume in moderate amounts.

Effects of consumption of caloric vs noncaloric sweet drinks on indices of hunger and food consumption in normal adults.
This study compared the eating patterns in adults after consuming sweet drinks with calories (sugar), sweet drinks with no calorie sweeteners (NCSs), and water. The subjects were served breakfast, a drink a few hours later, lunch, and dinner. The results of the study showed the participants that had water as a drink had the highest amount of hunger, participants that had drinks with NCS had less hunger, and participants that had drinks with sugar showed the least amount of hunger. The study controlled the serving sizes of everything, and under the conditions of the study NCSs did not increase hunger. Hunger was measured using visual analogue scales.

Sucrose activates human taste pathways differently from artificial sweetener
Sucrose (sugar) and sucralose (Splenda) are tested to see if the brain will activate the reward system in the brain. The study was preformed blindly upon the participants in order to eliminate bias. The subjects' brains were then scanned with fMRIs to see the activated areas of the brain. The results of the fMRI scan showed that sucrose activated 10 regions of the brain versus sucralose which activated only 3 areas. In conclusion, sucrose activates more taste related pathways in the brain than sucralose.

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