Ch 2 El

How do we argue

Arguments originate from a catalyst: a gap or imperfection, an unknown answer, or an unsolved problem that matters to the writer. Scholars use arguments to explain and improve our world. Government and military intelligence experts use arguments to inform politicians. Criminal trial lawyers use arguments to establish guilt or innocence. Scientists discover evidence through research, which others use to build compelling cases for new laws or regulations.

Supporting claims
Claim- "you should keep reading" because…
Support- "this chapter will be really useful."
Evidence includes anything we can observe.
Verification includes things we can look up.
Illustrations involve things we imagine.

Evidence is a primary source, something that you can collect and analyze yourself.
Verification is a secondary source, which means someone else has already analyzed or interpreted the evidence.
Illustration is an original source, one that you create or borrow for a particular argument.

Effective arguments always build on some basis of acceptance or agreement.

Arguments can influence what we know, consider the effects of:

  • arguments made by civil rights leaders who changed how we think about equality.
  • arguments made by feminists who influenced the way American families function.
  • arguments made by activists who demanded health care reform.
  • arguments made by respected mentors who inspired you to question a previously held opinion.
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