Ch 2 Notes Belinda Corniea

Chapter 2 Notes:

  1. Summary: You reduce a source text to its main points and aspects, using your own words but sometimes including quoted words or phrases from the source.
  2. For summary you will usually be summarizing longer texts than whole chapters, articles or books.
  3. Other requirements of summarizing are always to make clear whom or what you are summarizing and to put your summary in your own words, expect for phrases you place in quotation marks.
  4. Paraphrase: With the same requirements in force, your encapsulation follows more closely the source's particular order of presentation or reasoning.
  5. Sometimes you will need to paraphrase not to encapsulate a long text, but to clarity a single pithy or difficult statement or concept.
  6. Gist: give only the main claim or thrust of a work or argument - in a sentence or so - w/o indicating many or any of its aspects or reasons.
  7. Mention: refer to the source in passing, invoking it as part of a general characterization.
  8. Citation only: relegate the name of the source to a parenthetical citation or footnote.
  9. Exact reproduction: replicate exactly an element of another source, such as a data table or a figure (e.g., a chart, graph, diagram, or map), or quote exactly the words of the source, either embedding those words in one of the sentences or quoting them as an indented block.
  10. Three principles should govern your thinking about how sources appear in any paper:
  • First Principle: Use sources as concisely as possible, so your own thinking isn't crowded out by your presentation of other people's thinking and your own voice lost in your quoting of other voices.
  • Second Principle: Never leave your reader in doubt as to when you are speaking and when you are relying on material from a source.
  • Third Principle: Always make clear how each source you introduce into your paper relates to your argument.
  1. Rules for quoting:
  • Quote only what you need or is really striking.
  • Quote verbatim.
  • Construct your own sentence so the quotation fits smoothly into it.
  • Usually announce a quotation in the words preceding it.
  • Choose your announcing verb carefully.
  • Don't automatically put a comma before a quotation.
  • Put the period or comma ending the sentence or clause after the parenthetical citation.
  • Indicate clearly when you are quoting a passage.
  1. If you need to quote more than four lines of prose or two verses of poetry, indent the passage as a block.
  2. The basic rules for quoting blocks:
  • Indent all lines 10 spaces (or 1") from the left margin.
  • Don't put an intended block in quotation marks.
  • Tell your readers in advance who is about to speak and what to listen for.
  • Construct your lead-in sentence so that it ends with a colon.
  • Follow up a block quotation with commentary that reflects on it and makes clear why you needed to quote it aka avoid ending a paragraph on a block quotation.
  • When using an in-text, parenthetic system of citation, put your citation of a block quotation outside the period at the end of the last sentence quoted.
  1. Use a discursive or "content" footnote or endnote when you want to tell the reader something extra to the strict development of your argument, or incorporate extra information about sources.
  2. For all discursive notes, if you are using MLA, APA, or CSE citation style in your paper, use superscript numbers for your discursive notes.
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