Chapter 1 Notes Johnson

Chapter 1: Why Do We Argue

So What The Point Of Scholarly Writing

A Scholar's Work

  • Higher education has two interrelated Functions
    • To communicate
    • To create knowledge
  • College can provide people with the the opportunity to apprentice as a scholar
  • As an apprentice you can begin making sense of how and why scholars use writing to expand the bounds of human understanding

Scholarly Habits of Mind

  • Well educated people make decisions carefully and take their time
    • They appreciate that the world is complicated and they know with most issues there is more than meets the eye
    • They know the importance of studying an issue from multiple viewpoints before rushing to judgment
  • By practicing scholarly argument, well educated people learn they must carefully explain and support their conclusions
    • Understand that their readers won't let them off with half baked assertions, judgments, or decisions
  • Well educated people know that everyone perspective including their own is limited
    • Thats why they practice critical thinking that involves looking carefully for errors in reasoning
  • People who are will educated about how arguments work can craft logically sound, persuasive cases that benefit them personally and professionally

A Fresh Look at Your Old Writing Process

  • Writing can help you develop educated habits of mind
  • Experienced writers usually don't write in a formulaic, straight line
  • Scholars typically follow a more recursive process
  • They repeat steps multiple times and at different points in their process
  • Scholars allow drafting, recision, and peer feedback to reshape their ideas
  • As they go through the writing process, they improve and focus their ideas by imagining different audiences and purposes and by finding potential gaps in their arguments
  • Effective writing is not a magical or natural talent, it can be explained and learned
  • You only need four things to develop your writing ability
    1. Knowledge
    2. Practice
    3. Feedback
    4. Motivation
  • These things can help you become a more effective writer

The One-Drat Wonder

  • Research shows that most new college students write on draft and make a few changes and then submit their work for a grade
  • Most writers can achieve some success without much planning or revising
  • The first writing process lesson is:
    • Adapt your writing process to fit the particular writing situation, Experienced writers don't write the same way every time

Toward a Better Writing Process

  • Break the writing process down into four parts: discovery, drafting, revision, and editing
    • Discovery- includes tasks such as choosing a topic, identifying the right questions , finding and processing outside sources, and organizing ideas
    • Drafting- generates the first version of a complete draft
    • Revisions- involves significantly adding, deleting, or rearranging chunks of text or content
    • Editing- polishes paragraphs and sentences for style, formatting, and grammar
  • The four parts of the writing process are inversely proportional to each other

Practicing Argument

  • One of the main tools scholars use to communicate and solve problems is Argument
  • Arguments influence what the audiences know, believe, or act, and they can also clarify or enhance our own thinking
  • Scholarly arguments have real purposes based in problems that interest the participants
  • Scholarly arguments address a specific audience
  • Scholarly arguments belong to larger conversations, histories, and contexts that determine the riles for what counts as a good argument
  • Scholarly arguments pursue ideal purposes
  • Scholarly regiments address sophisticated, demanding audiences
  • Scholars will expect that you examine your subject from different angles, agh you anticipate other perspectives or counterarguments

The Rhetorical Situation

  • Who(Author Audience)
  • What and How(Subject Matter, Argument, and Style
  • When and Where(Context)
  • Why(The Writers Motivation)

From Academic Writing to Scholarly Writing

  • Arguments are the common ground of both academic writing and scholarly writing
  • The purpose of your scholarly apprenticeship is to help you transition from academic to scholarly writing

Writing With Purpose

  • Analyze- to take something apart to see how it works
  • Evaluate or critique- too judge something according to established criteria
  • Interpret- to examine somethings meaning, implications, or significance

Make It Matter

  • Experienced scholars not only consider who would care about their arguments but also why it matters in the first place
  • Identifying the purpose, audience, and larger significance of a writing task can help you make decisions about content, length, organization, and writing style.

So What

  • Scholars read and write arguments to investigate three basic questions:
    1. How do we Know what we know
    2. Why do we believe what we believe
    3. How can wee improve what we know and believe
  • Arguments get to the bottom of problems and controversies, and who they use research and evidence to answer significant questions
  • Effective arguments are built on a strong basis of agreement with shared knowledge, values, and beliefs
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