Chapter 10 Notes Johnson

What About Style

  • Writing is a series of strategic choices

Writing with Style

  • The ability to adapt our voice, word choice, sentence structure, rhetorical effects, and documents design to different situations, expectations, or demands
  • With practice, style is something that you can change and adapt, according to the needs of different audiences, purposes, and contexts

Scholarly Style

  • The universal rule for good style, in scholarly writing or elsewhere, is for it to seem deliberate, with every word
  • effective scholars try to write compelling prose that cannot possibly be misunderstood

Higher order and later order concerns

  1. Perfectionism can cause writers block: your mind has enough to do without trying to articulate your ideas perfectly the first time
  2. Polishing can waste time and energy: while your still sculpting. every time you reorganize, add, or delete content, you'll have to refinish your writing
  3. Editing while drafting is less effective: its difficult to concentrate on everything at once
  • You don't have to proceed through the writing process in a linear, lockstep way.
  • Its recommended that you prioritize and try not to do everything at once

Use Strong Verbs

  • Nominalized sentences can become clunky or unclear because they are overloaded with prepositions and excessive words
  • Nominalized verbs sometimes help us express abstract ideas or vary our sentence structure
  • Nominalization's can also make our writing less lively concise, and readable that using the original verbs
  • Sometimes writers nominalize verbs by turning them into nouns

Vivid and Precise Language

  • using descriptive language and varying your vocabulary choices can help you incorporate details into your writing that help readers feel, see, and experience your message
  • when the audience values brevity and clarity, al is often the case in business or scientific writing, literary flourishes fail
  • be very carful not to over embellish the writing i the genre or audience calls for concision
  • readers generally prefer specific and clear phrasing, details, and examples that express ideas precisely
  • use descriptive language to select words that transmit our exact meaning without interference or distortion
  • telling and showing come together link a claim and support
  • When we "tell" them, we claim more abstractly
  • Telling: you might use synonymous phrases

Sentence Variation

  • Rhetorical variation: Change the audience, purpose, or contact
  • Amplification: Elaborate, exaggerate, or use and analogy, metaphor, or simile
  • Linguistic variation: substitute vocabulary or rearrange the order
  • Genre translation: Rewrite the sentence in verse, or as a tweet
  • sentence variations helps writers assemble a richer stylistic toolkit
  • It also helps writers develop effective paraphrasing skills

Figures of Speech

  • Rhetorical figures are useful tools for enriching style
  • Metaphor: the stench of fear
  • Analogy: quiet as a mouse
  • Hyperbole: a pea-sized brain
  • Sarcasm: i never let schooling interfere with my education
  • Figures of speech can incur also some risks, such as:
    • Reference failure:much figurative language depends on the audience being familiar with specific cultural references
    • Inappropriate style: using figurative flourishes in a lab report might not go over will with an audience that wants an objective tone and just facts
    • Misinterpretation: attempts at humor, especially through sarcasm, can fail when the audience takes them literally
    • Cliches: because audiences expect figurative language to explain something in fresh terms
  • using figures of speech can create fresh understudying and even be used beyond the sentence level as argumentative techniques
  • using figures of comparison to make an argument may provide a new way to make sees of your topic, but might also cause an audience to claim that your using fallacious reasoning
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