Chapter 6

How Do We Support Arguments?

  • Building Credibility
    • Verification- borrowed from trustworthy sources. Relies on "secondary" sources
    • Reputation- what the audience already knows and thinks about the author before they begin reading
    • Presentation- involves a style that's suitable for your audience and purpose.
  • Activating Reasoning or Logic with Evidence

- Audiences respond to evidence more reliably than they respond to credible emotional appeals

  • Quantitative Evidence
    • The use of statistical analysis to test the quality of their results, helps make statistics much more persuasive.
  • Qualitative Evidence
    • Data might be actual words or quotations from a novel, or known biographical information about an author.
  • Link Evidence to Claims

- Linkages provide the bridge that connects the claim with the evidence

  • Research Methods
    • Interviews
    • Surveys
    • Observations
  • Representing Results Graphically
    • Line Charts
    • Pie Charts
    • Bubble Charts
    • Venn Diagrams
    • Flowcharts
  • Analysis
    • What does this evidence suggest? What might it mean?
    • How could this information help me answer my research question?
    • Do these responses align with what other scholars have found, or are the results different?
    • What questions remain? What else needs to be studied?

Your claim can only be as strong as your evidence

  • Narrating
    • You can't forget the audience
      • Why should readers care?
      • What's the larger significance here?
      • What's the takeaway message (Implications) that readers haven't already heard a hundred times?
    • You need evidence
      • What story elements illustrate my message?
      • What details can serve as evidence to prove my point?
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