Chapter 6 Alex


  1. Verification- borrowed from trustworthy sources or "secondary sources"
  2. Reputation- what the audience knows about the author
  3. Presentation- using a style that's suitable for the audience or purpose

-Evidence provides the strongest foundation for arguments
-Linkages provide the bridge that connects the claim with the evidence
-Focus on the readers' needs and expectations not your own


  • Relevance-indicates quality of the linkages
  • Sufficiency-reflects the quantitative strength of the linkages

-Collect evidence of your own

Research Methods

  • Interview- write questions before hand, record with permission
  • Surveys- write clear and calculated questions, have others look over your survey
  • Observations- remain inconspicuous to limit your effect on it

-Photos, artwork, and other graphics can function as evidence, illustrations, or verification in an argument


  • Line charts- can show relationship between two variables
  • Pie charts- can show relationships through percentages and proportionally
  • Bubble charts- allow authors to illustrate three dimensions of data


  • What does the evidence suggest? What might it mean?
  • How can it help me answer my research question?
  • Does it align with what other scholars have found? Different?
  • What questions remain? What else needs to be studied?


  • It's the place where we amplify-turn up, intensify, expand our argument
  • metacommentary- explicit statements about our intended meaning which clarify our meaning

- add a little emotion
-personal experience can be used to enhance credibility or emotion


-Don't forget the audience
-You need evidence

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