Chapter 6 Notes Johnson

How Do We Support Arguments

Building Credibility

  • Before most audiences will trust new information that we present,they must consider us or our arguments to be credible
  • Credibility usually comes from three sources:
    1. Verification, borrowed form trustworthy sources. It relies on secondary sources, which means someone else has already analyzed or interpreted the evidence.
    2. Reputation, or what the audience already knows and thinks about the author before they start reading. Readers trust authors whom they recognize as experts.
    3. Presentation, which involves using a style thats suitable for your audience and purpose. Careful editing also demonstrates that we are about our writing and our audience.

Activating Reasoning or Logic with Evidence

  • Audiences respond to evidence more reliably than they respond to credible and emotional appeals
  • To understand why, we must consider the concept of reliability, which indicates how closely the results of investigation come together to form a pattern.
  • We're most certain of what we can observe and count because observing and sounding don't seem like acts of interpretation

Quantitative Evidence

  • To seek reliable conclusions, scholars develop carful methods of investigation that will yield similar results each time.
  • Scholars who engage in quantitative investigation use Statistical Analysis to test the quality of their results,which kelps make statistics much more persuasive

Qualitative Evidence

  • Don't think of evidence as quantitative data
  • In literary studies, Data might be actual words from a novel, or known biographical information about an author
  • Whatever their discipline, scholars are careful to design reliable and precise methods for collecting, analyzing, and reporting evidence

Link Evidence to Claims

  • Such connections between a thesis and its support demonstrate linkages
  • Linkages provide the bridge that connects the claim with the evidence
  • One way to show your work is to transform our arguments from author centered writing, to audience centered writing
  • Whats most important is to help readers see the logical pathway that guides our thinking
  • Linkages elaborate all kinks of arguments because they make our assumptions more explicit

Scrutinize Your Linkages

  • We typically evaluate linkages between evidence and claims according to two criteria: Relevance and Sufficiency
    1. Relevance, indicates the quality of the linkage
    2. Sufficiency, reflects the quantitative strength of the linkage
  • In the sciences and social sciences, scholars carefully explain the relevance of he evidence by making clear distinctions between correlations and causation
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