Chapter 7 Hamnes

Chapter 7: What about Faults and Gaps in Arguments

  • Fallacies do not build the best possible case for reaching a conclusion.
  • A qualification is a stated restriction that limits a claim's strength.
  • A common kind of relevance fallacy confuses correlation with causation.
  • Fallacies aren't necessarily false. Making a hasty generalization or invoking a Truth may very well be an error in reasoning, and using such techniques may cause a critical audience to question your conclusions.

Respond to Objections

1. We can concede. When our readers" objections are valid, we typically acknowledge their legitimacy. We don't think of conceding as "giving in" or undermining our argument; rather, we concede to show readers that we're honest, open-minded, and reasonable.

2. We can refute. If we disagree with our readers' objections, we can explain how we've arrived at an alternative position. We articulate an opposing view and then present the evidence, verification, and illustrations that convinced us to think differently.

Elaborate to Fill Gaps

1. Incorporate more examples.
2. Respond to more objections.
3. Relate the argument to real-life contexts.
4. Discuss the larger implications of your argument.
5. Make connections to other related issues.

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