Chapter 8
  • Organizing Rhetorically
    • What's my purpose? What am I really trying to accomplish in this essay?
    • What kind of audience will read this? Will readers likely resist or welcome my ideas?
    • How are the arguments that I've read in this discipline typically organized? What kind of organization will my readers expect? Do I want to meet these expectations or surprise my audience?
    • Am I conduction original research, such as collecting date or conducting experiments? How will I organize and present my results?
  • Arguments about Policy
    • Describes a problem
    • Presents solutions
    • and Justifies a course of action
  • The Scholarly Model
    • Introduction
      • Identify the controversy, problem, or research question and its significance and relevance (catalyst)
      • Establish your qualifications to write about the topic
      • Create common grounds with readers
      • Demonstrate fairness
      • Arouse readers' attention and interest, often with an example or a personal narrative
      • State or imply the theses
      • Forecast the structure of the argument
    • Background
      • Summarize import sources and research on the subject
      • Describe the subject's history and its theoretical foundation
      • Give an overview of the situation or problem
      • Explain the process you used to answer a research question or to study a problem
    • Support
      • Present verification, evidence, and illustrations that support the thesis, ordered in a clear and thoughtful pattern.
      • Explicitly link sub claims and support back to the thesis
      • Report and tabulate data and results gathered through investigation, sometimes using figures and charts
      • Analyze, interpret, and apply research findings.
    • Consideration of alternative arguments
      • Examine alternative points of view
      • Not advantages and disadvantages of alternative positions
      • Acknowledge limitations of your research or viewpoint
      • Explain why your argument is better
    • Conclusion
      • Briefly summarize and synthesize the overall argument
      • Identify the implications of research findings
      • Make clear what readers should think or do
      • Add a strong emotional or ethical appeal
      • Raise questions for further research
  • Scholarly Moves
  • Move 1: Start with What Others Have Said
      • to familiarize readers with the context and place our argument within a scholarly conversation
      • to verify our assumptions, methods, or the research questions, as in a research or literature review
      • to demonstrate that we've done our homework by reviewing previous research; neglecting to cute or at least refer to related scholarship damages our credibility.

Scholars rarely assert their own position before they've first acknowledged what others have said

  • Move 2: Highlight Agreement before Disagreement
  • Move 3: Put Your Best Foot Forward
  • Structure Your Writing Process
    • Break the assignments into a series of manageable tasks; then assign a deadline for each task.
    • Break a long assignment into chunks.
    • Get feedback along the way.
    • Don't insist on following a fixed or linear plan.
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