Chapter 8 Hamnes

Chapter 8: How Do We Develop and Organize Arguments

  • Although we can structure claims, support, and linkages in many different ways, we design a deliberate plan for developing an argument so that we put everything in its place for a reason.

Organizing Rhetorically

  • What's my purpose? What am I really trying to accomplish in this essay
  • What kind of audience will read this? Will readers likely resist or welcome my ideas?
  • How are the arguments that I've read in this discipline typically organized? What kind of organization will my readers expect? Do I want to meet these expectations or surprise my audience?
  • Am I conducting original research, such as collecting data or conducting experiments? How will I organize and present my results?

Arguments about Policy

  • We use this kind of structure when we write a proposal argument, which

1. describes a problem
2. presents solutions, and
3. justifies a course of action.

The Scholarly Model

1. Introduction

  • Identify the controversy, problem, or research question and its significance and relevance (catalyst).
  • Establish your qualifications to write about the topic.
  • Create common ground with readers.
  • Demonstrate fairness.
  • Arouse readers' attention and interest, often with an example or a personal narrative.
  • State or imply the thesis.
  • Forecast the structure of the argument.

2. Background

  • Summarize important sources and research on the subject.
  • Describe the subject's history and its theoretical foundation.
  • Give and overview of the situation or problem.
  • Explain the process you used to answer a research question or study a problem.

3. Support

  • Present verification, evidence, and illustrations that support the thesis, ordered in a clear and thoughtful pattern.
  • Explicitly link subclaims and support back to the thesis.
  • Report and tabulate data and results gathered through investigation, sometimes using figures and charts.
  • Analyze, interpret, and apply research findings.

4. Consideration of alternative arguments

  • Examine alternative points of view.
  • Note advantages and disadvantages of alternative positions.
  • Acknowledge limitations of your research or viewpoint.
  • Explain why your argument is better.

5. Conclusion

  • Briefly summarize and synthesize the overall argument.
  • Identify the implications of research findings.
  • Make clear what readers should think or do.
  • Add a strong emotional or ethical appeal.
  • Raise questions for further research.
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