Chapter 9 Hamnes

Chapter 9: How Do We Use Sources Responsibly

  • For scholars, nearly every paper is a research paper.
  • Always ask your instructor, in advance, about what kinds of collaboration she allows.
  • You can't learn something new if you don't do the work.

Tips for Avoiding Plagiarism

  • Get to know your honor code so you know how your school handles academic integrity.
  • As you read, pay careful attention to how writers use their sources.
  • Maintain careful notes as you read and conduct research.
  • Don't be tempted to write your paper and then go back to fill in the citations.
  • Don't procrastinate.

Create a Conversation

  • Interpret the source.
  • Explain how the quotation relates to our argument.
  • Tell readers what makes the quotation significant.
  • Consider ways to make a source our own.


  • Original text
  • Proper paraphrase
  • Proper paraphrase with quotation
  • Patchwriting
  • Scholars value accurate citations because they illustrate the genealogy of our work

How Do We Know When We Need to Cite Something?

  • Always cite quotations and paraphrases, an include the page number
  • Cite summaries, too. If you're summarizing a small part of a source, include the appropriate page numbers. When summarizing an entire source, page numbers are not necessary.
  • Cite statistics, dates, and other details that are not common knowledge.
  • A bibliographic citation includes everything that a reader would need to know to find the exact source that you used.
  • In-text citations appear right next to where you summarize, paraphrase, or quote from your source
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