Chapter 9 Notes Johnson

How Do We Use Sources Responsibly

  • For scholars nearly every paper is a research paper
  • Scholars maintain their integrity by making a good faith effort not to cheat the authors whose words and ideas they barrow
  • To fully understand sources content, intended purpose, and persuasive strategies before you critique them , disagree with them, or use them to support your own arguments
  • Scholars rarely write alone

Create a Conversation

  • When you build sources into arguments, you not only clarify who your sources are, but you also create linkages by telling readers:
    1. why a quote is there
    2. what it means
    3. how its related to, or supports, your argument
  • Interpret the source
  • Explain how the quotation relates to your argument
  • Tell readers aha makes the quotation significant
  • Consider ways to make a source your own


  • Original text
  • Proper paraphrase
  • Proper paraphrase with quotation
  • Patch writing

How do we know we need to cite something

  • Always cite quotations and paraphrases
  • Cite summaries
  • Cite statistics, dates, and other details
  • The number of times some information gets published may or may not indicate anything about it being commonly known
  • We create arguments from sources by responsibly borrowing and building on the words and thoughts of other scholars
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