Notes AH

Chapter 1 Notes
Writing can be empowering: it gives us a voice and an opportunity to say something meaningful and significant (2)

  • learn more deeply
  • have potential to change the world in some small way
  • change our minds about something

Writing and arguing are active, and fun
Higher education has two interrelated functions: (3)

  • to communicate
  • to create knowledge

You'll use the skills, knowledge, and habits that you learn as an apprentice scholar throughout college and in your personal and professional life. (4)
Well educated people:

  • Make decisions carefully and take their time. (5)
  • Carefully explain and support their conclusions for others to scrutinize.
  • Know that everyone's perspective, including their own, is limited.

To develop a good writing ability, you need: (7)

  • Knowledge, Practice, Feedback, Motivation

Writing Process: (9)

  • Discovery
  • Drafting
  • Revision
  • Editing

Scholarly arguments: (13)

  • have real purposes based in problems that interest the participants
  • address a specific audience
  • belong to larger conversations, histories, and contexts that determine the rules for what counts as a good argument.

Rhetoric - the investigation of how persuasion and communication work
Investigative Questions (16,17)

  1. Who? (Author, Audience)
  2. What and How? (Subject Matter, Argument, and Style)
  3. When and Where? (Context)
  4. Why? (the writer's motivation-so what?)

Writing with a Purpose (19)

  • Analyze, Evaluate or Critique, Interpret

Three Basic Questions (23)

  1. How do we know what we know?
  2. Why do we believe what we believe?
  3. How can we improve what we know and believe?

Chapter 2 Notes

  • Arguments can be defined by two different ways:
  1. By their function, or what they do: compelling arguments respond to questions or problems that seem urgent, controversial, or significant to writers and their audiences. They help us create and communicate answers and solutions, and they influence us to modify what (or how) we know, believe, think, or act.
  2. By their form, or how they're structured: Arguments are comprised of four main elements: a claim, support, linkages, and some explanation of why the argument matters.
  • Scholars use arguments to explain and improve our world.
  • Government and military intelligence experts use arguments to inform politicians.
  • Criminal trial lawyers use arguments to establish guilt or innocence.
  • Scientists discover evidence through research, which others use to build compelling cases for new laws or regulations.

All arguments begin with a question or uncertainty and use some method of investigation and case buildings to arrive at a conclusion.

  • The Cycle of Argument: Catalyst, Inquiry, Argument, Implications
  • Supporting Claims: [Claim] because [Support].
  • Three categories of support:
  1. Evidence (Primary Source) - something you can observe: empirical data, personal experience, textual evidence
  2. Verification (Secondary Source) - something you can look up: previous research, law or precedence, established theory
  3. Illustration (Original Source) - something you can imagine: fictional narrative, hypothetical example, analogy or metaphor
  • Effective arguments always build on some basis of acceptance or agreement.
  • Assumptions make up the bulk of the total argument.
  • Arguments that anticipate disconnects-that is, objections and unshared assumptions-have the best chance for changing our audience's mind.
  • Increased controversy requires increased explanation
  1. Arguing the obvious (To avoid, read more and/or ask an expert)
  2. Arguing without support (To avoid, highlight your argument and/or consult a reader)
  3. Supporting without arguing (To avoid, use topic sentences and/or search for stranded support)

Chapter 3 Notes
Reading Strategies

  • Have a clear, specific purpose every time you read.
    • Am I reading to get a basic idea of what this is about?
    • Am I reading to learn and fully understand a concept?
    • Am I reading to analyze or criticize something?
  • You shouldn't read everything the same way.
  • Repetition enhances memory.

Different Phases of the Reading Process
*Previewing
* Before you read something, scan the table of contents, headings, tables images, and key words.
*What are the main ideas?
* What is the writer trying to accomplish?
* How does this reading connect to the course I'm taking?
* Then, skim quickly through the whole text.

  • Reading
    • If you encounter a confusing paragraph, stop.
    • Take notes while reading.
    • Write down your reactions to the argument.
  • Reviewing
    • Stop reading every once in a while and recall what you just read.
    • Repetition needs to happen in fairly quick succession after you first lean new material.
    • Improve concentration by limiting distractions.

A Guided Reading of a Scholarly Argument
* Identify the Catalyst
* Identify the Central Claim
* Identify the Support
* Identify the Linkages
* Identify the Implications
Identifying and Interpreting a Scholarly Argument's Elements Table
The Believing and Doubting Game
We can't enter scholarly conversations (make our own arguments) until we're familiar with what others have said and how and why they've said it. Once we understand the larger conversation surrounding a topic- through using active reading techniques- we can begin to find something compelling to contribute.

Chapter 4

  • Scholars rarely begin writing an argument before they've reviewed the work of current and previous scholars.
    • scholars almost always contextualize their own arguments in light of what others are saying or have said in the past
  • Starting with sources helps us:
    • Verify whether our work will yield something new
    • Begin collecting information to answer our research questions
    • Provide context for our investigation by relating our study to another scholar's work
    • Borrow methods of investigation or theories that worked for other scholars
    • Identify views, assumptions, or conclusions to build on or diverge from
  • Research Report or Persuasive Paper
    1. Begin with a very specific problem or question
    2. review scholarly publications
    3. Design and conduct some kind of investigation
    4. report results of the research
  • Credibility depends on the particular audience and situation
  • Find credible scholarly sources
    • Ask other scholars
    • explore a research data base
    • Search online
      • Who wrote this? What makes them credible?
      • What are the authors trying to achieve?
      • How do they support their claims?
      • Is anyone profiting from this? Who? How might money- making efforts influence the content?
      • When was this written?
      • Will this still be here next month?
  • Scholars often summarize, paraphrase, and quote other scholars
  • Summarize: to capture the whole text in a smaller amount of space, to identify the most important parts of a larger text, and to condense.
  • Paraphrase: to represent a portion of the text in your own words, to restate an idea in a different style by maintain the original length, to translate some else's words into your own phrasing, to avoid quoting too frequently in order to maintain a consistent tone.
  • Quote: to express a specific idea verbatim, to credit an author's original term, phrase, or controversial statement, to boost your credibility
  • How do we Summarize?
    • Read the text carefully
    • Create a "reverse outline," or schematic, of the text's layout
    • Select the most relevant points
    • Write a summary
    • Revise the summary
  • How do we Paraphrase?
    • Read carefully
    • Think about what it's saying
    • Rewrite the gist of what the source says
    • Double check the original
    • Cite the author
  • Managing The Research Process
    • Take good notes
    • Keep meticulous records
  • Using Sources to Generate Ideas
    • Play the believing and doubting game
    • Find a source with which you strongly disagree
    • Create a table that compares and contrasts your sources
    • Pair two sources in conversation with each other
    • Look at one source through the "lens" of another source

Chapter 5
Scholarly inquiry builds new knowledge or understanding by posing questions, gathering information (conducting research), and processing that information to draw conclusion

  • Keep reading
  • Apply your perspective
  • Make your own luck
  • Challenge yourself
  • Talk with others
  • Try freewriting

A great tool for getting started is to explore the kinds of controversies that arguments address
Develop a list of questions that you could ask about your topic, based on the five categories of controversies

  • Controversies about existence or fact (is it true? did it happen?)
  • Controversies about definition or interpretation (does this case fit the definition? how do we interpret this information?)
  • Controversies bout cause, consequence, or circumstance (was it intentional? are there extenuating circumstances?)
  • Controversies about evaluation (is it right or wrong? is it serious enough to warrant our attention?)
  • Controversies about jurisdiction, procedure, policy, or action to be taken (what, if anything, should we do about it?)
    • Challenging
    • Compelling
    • Controversial

Dig narrow and deep rather than broad and shallow

  1. Investigating a controversy thoroughly to identify the best questions that people haven’t answered fully yet
  2. Selecting challenging, compelling, and controversial questions
  3. Focusing on the later controversy categories

Investigating simultaneous, competing hypotheses helps scientists reduce bias
We might have a blurry idea of a thesis but once we start writing, we realize we really mean to say something different. Embrace that process. Allow yourself to discover first and organize later.
If you change your thesis midway through your writing process, you might want to tell your readers how and why your have arrived at a new conclusion

  • To show readers you’re evolving thoughts
  • To build a complicated argument
  • To develop a controversial argument
  • To keep the reader interested or surprised

Bottom line: wherever you place it, the best thesis is somewhere you arrive, now a place to begin

  • Clichéd arguments restate common wisdom or rely on an overused idea
  • Interesting arguments essentially state that a problem or concept is interesting

We aim for thesis statement that are both provocative and clear: vivid in their expression and evident in their meaning
"Although" Statements
Checklist

  • Answers a challenging, compelling, and/or controversial question
  • Gets at the heart of the controversy
  • Breathes new life into an issue and avoids overuse, common wisdom
  • Is appropriate for the argument's audience, purpose, and context
  • Engages readers with specific and interesting content and style
  1. Analyzing Arguments
  2. Writing for Social Media
  3. Using Sources as Catalysts

Chapter 6
Kinds of Support

  • Evidence - something you observe
    • Empirical data
    • Personal experience
    • Textual evidence
  • Verification - something you can look up
    • Previous research
    • law or precedence
    • established theory
  • Illustration - something you can imagine
    • hypothetical example
    • analogy or metaphor
    • fictional narrative

Building Credibility

  • Verification - borrowed from trustworthy sources
  • Reputation - or what the audience already knows and thinks about the author before they start reading
  • Presentation - which involves using a style that's suitable for your audience and purpose

Activating Reasoning or Logic with Evidence
* Audiences respond to evidence more reliably than they respond to credible and emotional appeals

  • Quantitative Evidence
  • Qualitative Evidence
  • Link Evidence to Claims
    • Linkages provide the bridge that connects the claim with the evidence
  • Reader-Centered Writing
    • help readers see the logical pathway that guides our thinking
  • Scrutinize Your Linkages
    • Relevance indicates the quality of the linkage
    • Sufficiency reflects the quantitative strength of the linkage
  • Research Methods
    • Interviews
    • Surveys
    • Observations
  • Representing Results Graphically
    • Line charts, Pie charts, Bubble charts
  • Analysis
    • What does this evidence suggest? What might it mean?
    • How could this information help me answer my research question?
    • Do these responses align with what other scholars have found, or are the results different?
    • What questions remain? What else needs to be studied?
      • Your claim can only be as strong as your evidence
  • Drawing Conclusions
    • Metacommentary - explicit statements about our intended meaning, which clarify our message and address any confusion readers might have.
      • What I mean by that is …
      • The point I'm trying to make is …
      • I'm not saying _ _ _ _ _ _. What I am saying is …
      • Let me clarify: _ _ _ _ _ is my central argument.
      • The gist of the matter is …
      • In other words …

Pyramid on pg. 138
* Personal experience can be used to enhance credibility or emotion.

  • Narrating
    • You can't forget the audience
      • Why should readers care?
      • What's the larger significance here?
      • What's the takeaway message (implications) that readers haven't already heard a hundred times?
    • You need evidence

Chapter 7

  • Arguments break down when readers discover weak linkages between a thesis or claim and it's support.
    • Reasoning or logic (activated by evidence),
    • Credibility (built with verification, reputation, or presentation), or
    • Emotion (evoked by illustrations).
  • Errors in thinking can be categorized as various kinds of fallacies.
  • Arguments commonly fail when the audience does not consider the evidence presented to be sufficient or relevant.
  • Fallacies do not build the best possible case for reaching a conclusion.
  • A qualification is a stated restriction that limits a claim's strength.
  • Qualifying claims helps us to avoid exaggerating arguments.
    • Weaken the verb
    • Narrow the subject
    • Limit the object
    • Add support
  • A common kind of relevance fallacy confuses correlation with causation. Make sure to not do this.
  • Fallacies aren't necessarily false.

Anticipate and Respond to Opposing Views
* Walk in the reader's shoes
* Identify the potential controversies
* Play the devil's advocate
Respond to Objections

  1. We can concede
  2. We can refute
  • Elaborate to fill gaps
    • Incorporate more examples
    • Respond to more objections
    • Relate the argument to real-life contexts
    • Discuss the larger implications of your argument
    • Make connections to other related issues.

Chapter 8
Organizing Rhetorically

  • What’s my purpose?
  • What kind of audience will read this?
  • How are the arguments that I’ve read in this discipline typically organized?
  • How will I organize and present my work?

Techniques for organizing thoughts:

  • Visualize your organization
  • Experiment with maps, graphics, and software
  • Create a reverse outline

The Scholarly Model

  1. Introduction
  2. Background
  3. Support
  4. Consideration of alternative arguments
  5. Conclusion

Scholarly moves:
Move 1: Start with What Others Have Said

  • Scholars rarely assert their own position before they’ve first acknowledged what others have said

Move 2: Highlight Agreement before Disagreement
Move 3: Put Your Best Foot Forward
Organize your revision

  • Add transitions to tell readers:
    • what’s coming next
    • how ideas are connected
    • when a change in subject or tone will occur
    • how to interpret the argument

Structure your writing process

  • Break the assignment into a series of manageable tasks; then assign a deadline for each task
  • Break a long assignment into chunks
  • Get feedback along the way
  • Don’t insist on following a fixed or linear plan

Chapter 9

  • For scholars, nearly every paper is a research paper.
    • or at least every paper presents an opportunity to conduct some kind o research
  • Write with integrity
    • copying from others denies you the opportunity to learn
      • Plagiarism
      • Unauthorized Collaboration
        • work with peers and colleagues, but always ask the instructor, in advance, about what kinds of collaboration she allows
      • Recycled Writing
        • You can't learn something new if you don't do the work
  • Tips for Avoiding Plagiarism
    • Get to know your honor code
    • As you read, pay careful attention to how writers use their sources
    • Maintain careful notes as you read and conduct research
    • Don't be tempted to write your paper and then go back and fill in the citations
    • Don't Procrastinate
  • Quote and Integrate Sources
    • frame quotations with an introduction and an explanation
  • Create a Conversation
    • create linkage between 1) why a quote is there 2) what it means 3) how it's related to, or supports, our arguement
    • Interpret the source
    • Explain how the quotation relates to our argument
    • Tell readers what makes the quotation significant
    • Consider ways to make a source our own
  • Paraphrasing
    • closely read and fully understand the source
  • Patchwriting: failed paraphrasing
  • Citing Sources
    • Scholars value accurate citations because they illustrate the genealogy of our work
    • Writing will develop more quickly if you concentrate first on selecting good sources, analyzing and evaluating their content and responsibly integrating their words and ideas into your own writing
  • How do we know we need to cite something?
    • Always cite quotations and parapgrases
    • Cite summaries
    • Cite statistics, dates, and other details
  • Citation Fundamentals
    • Bibliographic Citations
      • A bibliographic citation includes everything taht a reader would need to know to find the exact source that you need
      • Author(s)
      • Title(s)
      • Publication information (When, where, and wh0 published the source)
    • In-Text Citation
      • In-text citations appear right next to where you summarize, paraphrase, or quote from your source
      • Tells readers whose ideas are referenced
  • Three main citation elements
    • Author name(s)
    • Titles
    • Publication Information
      • Keep track of whatever details you or your reader would need to retrace your steps to find each source again
  • Using Sources in Scholarly and Nonacademic Work
    • How much does each author use each technique?
    • How much of the article is the author's thoughts?
    • How do the scholarly arguments use sources differently than the nonacademic ones?
  • Citation Systems
    • What differences do you notice among styles?
    • What disciplinary values might influence these different details, such as the date placement?

Chapter 10
* Writing is a series of strategic choices.
* Write compelling prose that cannot possibly be misunderstood.

  • High Order and Later Order Concerns
    • Perfectionism can cause writer's block.
    • Polishing can waste time and energy.
    • Editing while drafting is less effective.
  • Mechanics
    • Errors add to confusion.
    • Errors diminish credibility
  • Punctuation
    • Period (.)
    • Dash (-)
    • Colon (:)
    • Semicolon (;)
  • Voice
    • Many readers prefer active voice because it's usually clearer and easier to read.
  • Clarity and Vividness
    • Use of strong verbs.
  • Imitation
  • Sentence Variation
    • Rhetorical variation
      • Change the audience,, purpose, or context
    • Amplification
      • Elaborate, exaggerate, or use an analogy, metaphor, or simile
    • Linguistic variation
      • Substitute vocabulary or rearrange the order
    • Genre translation
      • Rewrite the sentence in verse, or as a Tweet
  • Figures of Speech
    • Metaphor: "the stench of fear"
    • Analogy: "quiet as a mouse"
    • Hyperbole or exaggeration: "a pea-sized brain"
    • Sarcasm: "I never let schooling interfere with my education" (Mark Twain)
    • Reference failure
    • Inappropriate style
    • Misinterpretation
    • Cliches
  • Reviewing with others
    • Invite a trusted friend, classmate, or writing center tutor to read tour work aloud
    • Technology can help with editing too
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