Notes Belina

Chapter 1 Notes 1/15

  • Writing can be empowering: it gives us a voice and an opportunity to say something meaningful and significant. (2)
  • Higher education has two interrelated functions: to communicate and create knowledge. (3)
  • Well-educated people make decisions carefully and take their time (5)
  • 4 things to develop writing ability: knowledge, practice, feedback and motivation (7)
  • Scholarly arguments contain elements of everyday arguments
    • Scholarly arguments have real purposes based in problems that interest the participants
    • Scholarly arguments address a specific audience
    • Scholarly arguments belong to larger conversations, histories, and contexts that determine the rules for what counts as a good argument (13)
  • Important differences between scholarly and everyday arguments
    • Scholarly arguments pursue ideal purposes.
    • scholarly arguments address sophisticated, demanding audiences. (14)
  • To be an effective communicator, pay careful attention not just to the content of what you read but also to the author and his audience and purpose. (15)
  • Investigative questions
    • Who? (Author, Audience)
    • What? and How? (Subject matter, argument and style)
    • When? and Where? (Context)
    • Why? (the Writer's Motivation-So What?) (16)
  • To successfully demonstrate learning, in can be helpful to exaggerate scholarly moves: refer to key terms in the textbook or mention important theories or topics covered in class. (20)
  • Three basic questions:
    1. How do we know what we know?
    2. Why do we believe what we believe?
    3. How can we improve what we know and believe? (23)

Chapter 2 Notes 1/26

  • Arguments can be defined in two ways:
    • By their function, or what they do
    • By their form, or how they're structured
  • All arguments begin with a question or uncertainty and use some method of investigation and case building to arrive at a conclusion.
  • The Process of Argument:
    • Catalyst
    • Inquiry
    • Argument
    • Implications
  • Supporting Claims basic structure: [Claim] because [Support].
  • Three categories of support:
    1. Evidence - anything we can observe: empirical data, personal experience, textual evidence
    2. Verification - things we can look up: previous research, law or precedence, established theory
    3. Illustration - things we imagine: fictional narrative, hypothetical example, analogy or metaphor
  • Effective arguments always build on some basis of acceptance or agreement.
  • Learning to anticipate and meet the needs of a demanding audience ca help you make more compelling and convincing everyday arguments.
  • Assumptions make up the bulk of the total argument.
  • Arguments that anticipate disconnects-that is, objections and unshared assumptions-have the best chance for changing our audience's mind.
  • Increased controversy requires increased explanation.

Chapter 3 Notes 1/28

  • Code is read more often than it is written.
  • Have a clear, specific purpose in mind every time you read.
  • You shouldn't read everything the same way.
  • Repetition enhances memory.
  • Three different phases of the reading process:
  1. Previewing - Before you read something, scan the table of contents, headings, tables, images, and key words. Then, skim quickly through the whole text.
  2. Reading - If you encounter a confusing paragraph, stop. Take notes while reading and write down your reactions to the argument,
  3. Reviewing - Pause every few minutes and recall what you just read. Repetition needs to happen in fairly quick succession after you first learn new material. Improve concentration by limiting distractions.
  • Identifying the Controversy table (61)
  • A Guided Reading of a Scholarly Argument
  1. Identify the Catalyst
  2. Identify the Central Claim
  3. Identify the Support
  4. Identify the Linkages
  5. Identify the Implications
  • Identifying and Interpreting a Scholarly Argument's Elements table (70)
  • Believing and Doubting game (76)
  • Can't enter scholarly conversations without being familiar with what others have said and how and why they've said it.

Chapter 4 Notes 2/9

  • Starting with sources helps us:
    • Verify whether our work will yield something new
    • Begin collecting information to answer our research questions
    • Provide context for our investigation by relating our study to another scholar's work
    • Borrow methods of investigation or theories that worked for other scholars
    • Identify views, assumptions, or conclusions to build on or diverge from
  • Exaggeration = Hyperbole
  • Writing typically follows research
  1. Begin with a very specific problem or question
  2. Review scholarly publications
  3. Design and conduct some kind of investigation
  4. Report results of the research
  • Credibility depends on the particular audience and situation
  • Find credible scholarly sources by:
    • Asking other scholars
    • Exploring a research database
    • Search online, but ask yourself: Who wrote this? What makes them credible? What are the authors trying to achieve? How do they support their claims? Is anyone profiting from this? Who? How might money-making efforts influence the content? When was this written? Will this still be here next month?
  • Scholars often summarize, paraphrase, and quote other scholars
    • Summarize to: Capture the whole text in a smaller amount of space, identify the most important parts of a larger text, and condense.
    • Paraphrase to: represent a portion of the text in your own words, restate an idea in a different style but maintain the original length, translate someone else's words into your own phrasing, avoid quoting too frequently in order to maintain a consistent tone.
    • Quote to: express a specific idea verbatim, credit an author's original term, phrase, or controversial statement, boost your credibility
  • How do we summarize?
    • Read the text carefully
    • Create a "reverse outline," or schematic, of the text's layout
    • Select the most relevant points
    • Write a summary
    • Revise the summary
  • How do we paraphrase?
    • Read carefully
    • Think about what it's saying
    • Rewrite the gist of what the source says
    • Double check the original
    • Cite the author
  • Take good notes and keep meticulous records
  • Using sources to generate ideas
    • Find a source with which you strongly disagree
    • Create a table that compares and contrasts your sources
    • Pair two sources in conversation with each other.
    • Look at one source through the "lens" of another source

Chapter 5 Notes 2/24

  • How can you possibly develop an argument that experienced scholars don't already know?
    • Keep reading
    • Apply your perspective
    • Make your own Luck
    • Challenge yourself
    • Talk with others
    • Try freewriting
  • Ask the right questions
  • Categories of Controversy
    • Controversies about existence or fact (Is it true? Did it happen?)
    • Controversies about definition or interpretation (Does this case fit the definition? How do we interpret this information?)
    • Controversies about cause, consequence, or circumstance (Was it intentional? Are their extenuating circumstances?)
    • Controversies about evaluation (Is it right or wrong? Is it serious enough to warrant our attention?)
    • Controversies about jurisdiction, procedure, policy, or action to be taken (What, if anything, should we do about it?)
  • What is a good question?
    • Challenging
    • Compelling
    • Controversial
  • Dig narrow and deep, rather than broad and shallow
  • The thesis ultimately evolves
  • Settling on a thesis before writing closes off opportunities to learn
  • Writing an evolving thesis (Advantages)
    • Shows readers your evolving thoughts
    • builds a complicated argument
    • develops a controversial argument
    • keeps the reader interested or surprised
  • Aim for thesis statements that are both provocative and clear

Chapter 6 Notes 3/4

  • Restates Evidence, Verification, and Illustration
  • Building credibility
    • Verification, borrowed from trustworthy sources
    • Reputation, or what the audience already knows and thinks about the author before they start reading
    • Presentation, which involves using a style that's suitable for your audience and purpose
  • Activating Reasoning or Logic with Evidence
    • Audiences respond to evidence more reliably than they respond to credible and emotional appeals
    • Quantitative Evidence
    • Qualitative Evidence
  • Link Evidence to Claims
    • Linkages provide the bridge that connects the claim with the evidence
    • Reader-Centered Writing - help readers see the logical pathway that guides our thinking
    • Scrutinize Your Linkages - Relevance indicates the quality of the linkage
  • Research Methods
    • Interviews
    • Surveys
    • Observations
  • Representing Results Graphically
    • Line charts
    • Pie Charts SUCK
    • Bubble charts
  • Analysis
    • What does this evidence suggest? What might it mean?
    • How could this information help me answer my research question?
    • Do these responses align with what other scholars have found, or are the results different?
    • What questions remain? What else needs to be studied?
    • Your claim can only be as strong as your evidence.
  • Drawing Conclusions
    • Metacommentary - "the author" clarifies any misunderstanding or speaks directly to the reader
      • What I mean by that is…
      • The point I'm trying to make is…
      • I'm not saying _. What I am saying is…
      • Let me clarify:_ is my central argument.
      • The gist of the matter is…
      • In other words…
  • Ethos, Pathos, and Logos
  • Pyramid on Pg. 138
  • Personal experience can be used to enhance credibility or emotion
  • Narrating
    • Don't forget the audience. Ask:
      • Why should readers care?
      • What's the larger significance here?
      • What's the takeaway message (implications) that readers haven't already heard a hundred times?
    • You need evidence

Chapter 7 Notes 3/30

  • Arguments typically break down in one of three main ways:through faulty uses of
    • Reasoning or logic (activated by evidence),
    • Credibility (built with verification, reputation, or presentation), or
    • Emotion (evoked by illustrations).
  • Errors in thinking can be categorized as various kinds of fallacies.
  • Fallacies do not build the best possible case for reaching a conclusion.
  • A qualification is a stated restriction that limits a claim's strength.
    • Weaken the verb
    • Narrow the subject
    • Limit the object
    • Add support
  • Make sure to not confuse correlation with causation.
  • Fallacies aren't necessarily false.
  • Anticipate and Respond to Opposing Views
    • Walk in the reader's shoes
    • Identify the potential controversies
    • Play the devils advocate
  • Respond to objections
    • We can concede
    • We can refute
  • Elaborate to fill gaps
  • Refer to page 154

Chapter 8 Notes 4/7

  • Put everything in its place for a reason
  • Organizing Rhetorically
    • What's my purpose?
    • What kind of audience will read this?
    • How are the arguments that I've read in this discipline typically organized?
    • Am I conducting original research, such as collecting data or conducting experiments?
  • Visualize your organization
    • Page 165, analogy to a building with different rooms
  • Experiment with maps, graphics, and software.
  • Developing arguments
    • Existence arguments rely on observable evidence for support.
    • Many arguments begin with disagreements about how we define a term or concept. Verify a definition with a credible source.
    • Arguments that try to establish a causal link are one of the most difficult cases to make. That's because it's tough to definitively link a cause and effect without confusing cause with correlation.
    • Like definitional arguments, evaluation arguments sometimes stand alone and sometimes become part of a larger argument. The structure you choose can help promote synthesis.
    • Arguments about policy - Describes a problem, presents solutions, and justifies a course of action.

Scholarly Model (Pg. 177-178)

  • Scholars rarely assert their own position before they've first acknowledged what others have said.
  • Add transitions
    • What's coming next
    • How ideas are connected
    • When a change in subject or tone will occur
    • How to interpret the argument
    • How are these claims related?
    • Are these ideas equal, or is one a subpoint of another?
  • Unify your argument. Repeat key words throughout an argument
  • Document design techniques (Pg. 184)
  • Structure your writing process
    • Break the assignment into a series of manageable tasks; then assign a deadline for each task.
    • Break a long assignment into chunks.
    • Get feedback along the way.
    • Don't insist on following a fixed or linear pattern.

Chapter 9 Notes 4/16

  • For scholars, nearly every paper is a research paper.
  • Write with Integrity - Copying from others denies you the opportunity to learn.
  • Plagiarism - Copying someone else's words or ideas without attribution.
  • Unauthorized Collaboration - Always ask your instructor, in advance, about what kinds of collaboration he allows.
  • Recycled Writing - You can't learn something new if you don't do the work.
  • Tips for avoiding plagiarism:
    • Get to know your honor code so you'll know how your school handles academic integrity,
    • As you read, pay careful attention to how writers use their sources.
    • Maintain careful notes as you read and conduct research.
    • Don't be tempted to write your paper and then go back to fill in the citations.
    • Don't procrastinate.
  • We create linkages by telling readers:
    • Why a quote is there,
    • What it means, and
    • How it's related to, or supports, our argument.
  • Interpret the source.
  • Explain how the quotation relates to our argument.
  • Tell readers what makes the quotation significant.
  • Consider ways to make a source our own.
  • Paraphrasing (Pg 199)
  • Scholars value accurate citations because they illustrate the genealogy of our work.
  • How Do We Know When We Need to Cite Something?
    • Always cite quotations and paraphrases
    • Cite summaries
    • Cite statistics
  • A bibliographic citation includes everything that a reader would need to know to find the exact source that you used.
    • Author name(s)
    • Title(s)
    • Publication information (when, where, and who published the source)
  • In-text citations appear right next to where you summarize, paraphrase, or quote from your source.
  • Keep track of whatever details you or your reader would need to retrace your steps to find each source again.
  • Differences between MLA and APA citations (pg. 208)

Chapter 10 Notes 4/16

  • Writing is a series of strategic choices
  • Effective scholars try to write compelling prose that cannot possibly be misunderstood.
  • Scholarly style table pg 213
  • Perfectionism can cause writer's block
  • Polishing can waste time and energy
  • Editing while drafting is less effective
  • Mechanics - spelling, punctuation, capitalization, grammar, and usage
  • Errors add confusion and diminish credibility
  • Punctuation pg. 217-218
  • Many readers prefer active voice because it's usually clearer and easier to read
  • Use strong verbs
  • Less can be more
  • Use vivid and precise language
  • Attempt to mimic the writers whom you admire
  • Sentence variation pg 226
  • Figures of speech pg 227
  • Refer to chapter 10 for online writing styles
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