Notes Claire

Chapter 1

  • Many people claim that today's generation doesn't read or write enough, but in actuality we do it more than previous generations. We are constantly talking, texting, surfing the web such as Facebook or twitter. The only difference is that we do it a little differently than past generations
  • Learning to write and think like a scholar can help you in your future job prospects by giving you the necessary resources to stay well informed and to be able to think critically and effectively
  • The four key things you need in order to develop your writing ability
    • knowledge
    • practice
    • feedback
    • motivation!
  • The Writing Process involves:
    • discovery
    • drafting
    • revision
    • editing
  • Argument is a tool to help us explain how we feel about something and why we feel that way
  • The goals of scholarly arguments aren't simply to 'win' a conversation but to seek the truth and justify discoveries

Chapter 2

  • What is a catalyst?
    • a gap or imperfection, an unknown answer, or an unsolved problem that matters to the writer
  • Argument are made of four things:
    • a claim
    • support
    • linkages
    • some explanation of why the argument matters
  • catalyst → inquiry → argument → implications → catalyst etc.
  • arguments are like bridges
    • the thesis is the roadway
    • supports to hold it up
    • and linkages to tie everything together
  • Three most common categories of support:
    • evidence - anything we can observe
      • primary source
    • verification - information we can look up
      • secondary source
    • illustration - things we imagine (analogies/metaphors)
      • original source

Chapter 3

  • Reading Strategies
    • Have a clear, specific purpose in mind every time you read
    • You shouldn't read everything the same way
    • Repetition helps
  • Three steps to help enhance and monitor your concentration
    • Previewing
      • Before you read take note of the tables, images, table of contents and key words
      • Skim the whole text
    • Reading
      • If you don't understand something, stop
      • Take notes as you go
      • Write down how you feel about the argument
    • Reviewing
      • Stop reading and test yourself
        • Do you remember what you read?
      • Repetition needs to happen fairly quickly when it comes to new material
        • If you don't revisit it soon after reading it, you will have to start all over
      • Try to limit distractions
  • Different kinds of controversies (table on page 61)
    • Existence of fact
    • Definition or interpretation
    • Cause, consequence, or circumstance
    • Evaluation
    • Jurisdiction, procedure, policy, or action to be taken
  • Steps for reading a scholarly article
    • Identify the catalyst
    • Identify the central claim
    • Identify the support
    • Identify the linkages
    • Identify the Implications

Chapter 4

  • Look around for the topic you want to write about. More often than not someone already wrote about whatever issue you are researching. Just because someone already wrote about it doesn't mean you should stop. Read other articles to see what is out there. So, when you write yours it will be different and not just another carbon copy.
  • Combine the qualities of a persuasive paper and a research paper
    • Begin by finding a catalyst
    • Review other scholarly papers
    • Investigate
    • Report your results
  • Good sources should have:
    • Stability
    • Credibility
    • Reliability
  • Wikipedia isn't all bad. Don't cite it in a scholarly paper but, do use it to find other good sources and to read up on the topic you are interested in
  • Most scholars prefer to summarize or paraphrase compared to quoting
  • How to summarize:
    • Read the text
    • Create a "reverse outline"
    • Pull out the most relevant points
    • Summarize
    • Revise it
  • How to paraphrase:
    • Read carefully
    • Think about it
    • Rewrite it
    • Double check it with the original
    • Cite the source/author
  • Take notes while you read
  • Keep records of your sources

Chapter 5

  • How do you discover a thesis?
    • Keep reading
    • Apply your perspective
    • Make your own luck
    • Challenge yourself
    • Talk with others
    • Try freewriting
  • Ask the right questions
  • Categories of controversy
    • Controversies about existence or fact: (is it true? Did it happen?)
    • Definition or interpretation
    • Cause, consequence or circumstance
    • Evaluation
    • Jurisdiction, procedure, policy or action to be taken
  • Bad questions:
    • simple
    • obvious
    • boring
  • Good questions:
    • challenging
    • compelling
    • controversial
  • Constraint of a writing task:
    • available time
    • available knowledge
    • available space
  • Dig narrow and deep, rather than broad and shallow
  • Settling on a thesis before writing closes off opportunities to learn
  • Advantages of writing an evolving thesis
    • shows the readers your evolving thoughts
    • build a complicated argument
    • develop a controversial argument
    • keep the reader interested or surprised
  • Two types of thesis statements to avoid
    • clíched arguments
    • "interesting" arguments
  • Aim for thesis statements that are both provocative and clear
  • The use of "although"

Chapter 6

  • Credibility comes from three sources
    • Verification
    • Reputation
    • Presentation
  • Audiences respond to evidence more reliably than they respond to credible and emotional appeals
  • Quantitative Evidence vs Qualitative Evidence
  • Link your evidence to claims
    • Linkages provide the bridge that connects the claim with the evidence
  • Focus on the readers needs and expectation (audience-centered)
  • Help readers see the logical pathway that guides our thinking
  • Scrutinize your linkages
    • Relevance
    • Sufficiency
  • Incorporate your own research
  • Research Methods:
    • Interviews
    • Surveys
    • Observations
    • Use graphs or charts
      • Line charts
      • Pie charts
      • Bubble charts
  • Remember: Your claim can only be as strong as your evidence
  • Metacommentary are explicit statements about our intended meaning
    • used to clarify our message and address any confusion readers might have
  • Evoke emotion from the audience
  • Personal experience as support
  • Narrating
    • You can't forget the audience
    • You need evidence

Chapter 7

  • criticism is not always wanted but it helps improve your writing
  • fallacies in arguments
    • weak evidence
      • insufficiency
        • hasty generalization
        • fallacies do not build the best possible case
      • unqualified claims
        • a qualification is a stated restriction that limits a claim's strength
      • irrelevance
        • weak linkages
      • correlation vs causation
        • confused correlation with causation
      • changing the subject
      • straw man arguments
      • truth as support
    • relying too much on credibility
    • getting emotional
    • the usefulness of fallacies
      • fallacies aren't necessarily false
  • anticipate and respond to opposing views
    • anticipate objections
    • walk in the reader's shoes
    • identify the potential controversies
    • play the devil's (or the angel's) advocate
  • respond to objections
    • concede
    • refute
  • elaborate to fill gaps

Chapter 8

  • How do we develop and organize arguments?
    • Put everything in its place
    • Organize rhetorically
    • tips to organize your thoughts
      • visualize your plan
      • experiment with different graphics an software
        • create a visual representation of your plan to keep yourself organized
      • create a reverse outline
    • Develop your arguments
    • argue about the existence and fact
    • " " definition
    • " " cause and consequence
    • " " evaluation
    • " " policy
  • Select scholarly arrangements
    • scholarly model
      • 1. introduction
      • 2. Background
      • 3. Support
      • 4. Consider alternative arguments
      • 5. Conclude
    • Scholarly moves
      • Start with what others have said (scholars rarely assert their own position before they've acknowledged what others have said)
      • Highlight agreement before disagreement
      • Best foot forward
  • Organize your revision
  • Add transitions
  • Unify your argument
  • Design your document
  • Structure your writing process
    • Create smaller manageable parts of the whole and create deadlines for each small part
    • Break a long assignment into chunks
    • Get feedback along the way
    • Don't stick to a fixed or linear plan

Chapter 9

  • For scholars, almost every paper is a research paper
  • Write with integrity
  • Plagiarism
    • do not do it
  • Unauthorized collabs
    • Always ask your instructor, in advance, about what kinds of collabs he or she allows
  • Recycled writing
    • Can't learn something new if you don't do the work
  • Tips to avoid plagiarizing
    • know your honor code
    • As you read pay attention to how authors use their sources
    • Maintain meticulous notes while you read and conduct research
    • Don't be tempted to first write your paper and then go back to fill in the citations
    • Do not procrastinate
  • Quote and integrate sources
    • Frame quotations with:
      • introduction
      • explanation
  • Create a conversation
    • interpret the source
    • explain how the quote relates to your topic
    • explain why the quotation is significant
    • consider ways to make the source unique and "your own"
  • Paraphrasing
    • patchwriting = failed paraphrasing
  • Scholars value accurate citations because they illustrate the genealogy of our work
  • How do you know when you should cite something?
    • always cite quotations and paraphrases
    • cite summaries
    • cite statistics, dates and other details
  • Citation fundamentals
    • Bibliographies
      • includes everything that a reader would need to know to find the exact source that you used
    • In-text citations
      • appears right next to where you summarize, paraphrase, or quote from your source
  • Keep track of whatever details you or your reader would need to retrace your steps to find each source again

Chapter 10

  • Writing is a series of strategic choices
  • Write a compelling prose that will not be misunderstood
  • Higher order and later order concerns
    • perfectionism can cause writer's block
    • polishing can be a waste of time
    • editing while you are working on your draft is less effective
  • Mechanics
    • errors
      • can cause confusion
      • harm your credibility
    • Watch your punctuation
      • period
      • dash
      • colon
      • semicolon
    • Voice in writing
      • passive voice
      • active voice is preferred because it is clearer and easier to understand
    • Clarity and vividness
      • make use of strong verbs
      • less can be more
    • Creative ways to improve style
      • imitation
      • sentence variation
        • rhetorical
        • amplification
        • linguistic
        • genre
      • Figures of speech
        • metaphor
        • analogy
        • hyerbole/exaggeration
        • sarcasm
          • risk of using different figures of speech
            • reference failure
            • inappropriate style
            • misinterpretation
            • cliches
      • Visual design
        • use digital spaces
        • bold
        • italic
        • CAPITALIZED
          • writing papers online has a few positives
            • hypertexual
            • always public
            • audiences move quickly
            • the web is big and noisy
  • Writing E-mails
    • choose an appropriate style
      • explicit greetings
      • some introduction
      • an explicit question or statement of what you want or need
      • a polite closing
      • write like its official
  • Proofreading and editing
    • read your writing aloud
    • review with others
      • have a trusted friend, classmate, or writing center tutor read your work aloud
    • use technology
      • make editing easier
      • think carefully though before you take your word processor's advice
      • be careful with the thesaurus on the word processor
      • use the "find" function
  • Develop more of a style
  • Read as writer
  • Write as a reader
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