Notes Paris

Chapter 1 Notes

  • writing can help with college work and life
  • when we write, we stretch our minds and learn more deeply
  • we write now more than our ancestors did
  • we may not care about paper topic and ask ourselves so what?
  • higher education is to communicate and to create knowledge
  • I'll use knowledge that I used as an apprentice for my personal and professional life
  • well educated people make decisions carefully and take their time
  • they carefully explain and support their conclusions for others to scrutinize
  • they know that everyone's perspective, including their own, is limited
  • whether or no I am a scholar, thinking like one will always help
  • experienced writers don't write in a straight line
  • effective writing is not a magical or natural talent
  • to develop writing skills I need: knowledge, practice, feedback, and motivation
  • experience writers don't write the same way every time, and neither should I
  • complex writing is discovery, drafting, revision, editing
  • the more time and effort I spend drafting, the less time I have to invest in discovery or revision
  • writing is closely connected to thinking
  • if I only write one draft, I lose the opportunity to revise and expand my thinking
  • scholarly argument helps explain what we think and why we think so
  • scholarly arguments have real purposes based in problems that interest the participants
  • scholarly arguments address a specific audience
  • scholarly arguments belong to larger conversations, histories, and contexts that determine the rules for what counts as a good argument
  • scholarly arguments pursue ideal purposes
  • scholarly arguments address a sophisticated, demanding, audience
  • always pay careful attention to not just the context of what you read but also to the author and his audience and purpose
  • rhetoric: who, what and how, when and where, and why
  • professor might use analyze, evaluate or critique, and interpret to focus my attention

Chapter 2 Notes

  • arguments are composed of four main elements: a claim, support, linkages, and some explanation of why the argument matters
  • catalyst: a gap or imperfection, and unknown answer, or an unsolved problem that matters to the writer
  • scholars use arguments to explain and improve our world
  • government and military intelligence experts use arguments to inform politicians
  • criminal justice trial lawyers use arguments to establish guilt or innocence
  • scientists discover evidence through research which others use to build compelling cases for new laws or regulations
  • all arguments vein with a question or uncertainty and use some method of investigation and case building to arrive at a conclusion
  • some scholars might:
    1. discover a disciplinary question that puzzles them
    2. feel aggravated by a problem in their teaching
    3. vehemently disagree with another scholar's finding
    4. notice something new that contradicts previous experience
  • thesis's will intensify as the support becomes for accumulated
  • implications: consequences or effects that answer the "So What?" question
  • thesis: the roadway, built by investigation and thinking
  • support and linkages: tie everything together
  • claim: a debatable or controversial idea that we're proposing to our audience
  • [ Claim ] because [ Support ].
    1. Claim: "You should keep reading" because Support: "This chapter will be really useful."
  • evidence: includes anything we can observe (primary source)
  • verification: includes anything we can look up (secondary source)
  • illustrations: involve things we imagine (original source)
  • primary source: something that you can collect and analyze yourself
  • secondary source: someone else has already analyzed or interpreted the evidence
  • original source: one that you create or borrow for a particular argument
  • some support can cross over into more than one category
  • arguments fail when when audiences doubt the accuracy of evidence or misunderstands an illustration, supports fail when we haven't linked them properly to our claims
  • linkage can be thought of as obvious or "common sense"
  • effective argument always build on some basis of acceptance or agreement
  • assumptions make up the bulk of the total argument
  • arguments that anticipate disconnects have the best chance for changing our audience's mind
  • increased controversy requires increased explanation
  • common rookie mistakes made by apprentice scholars:
    1. Arguing the obvious
    2. Arguing without support
    3. Supporting without arguing
  • to avoid arguing the obvious:
    1. Read more
    2. Ask an expert
  • to avoid arguing without support:
    1. Highlight your argument
    2. Consult a reader
  • to avoid supporting without arguing:
    1. Use topic sentences
    2. Search for stranded support

Chapter 3 Notes

  • scholars read more than they write
  • practicing reading can train our brains to slow down and focus
  • first lesson of strategic reading is to have a clear, specific purpose in mind every time you read
  • Questions to ask yourself
    1. Why am I reading this, and what do I want to get out of it?
    2. Am I reading to get a basic idea of what this is about?
    3. Am I reading to learn and fully understand a concept?
    4. Am I reading to analyze or criticize something?
  • I shouldn't read everything the same way
  • repetition enhances memory
  • Previewing
    1. Before I read something, scan the table of contents, headings, tables, images, and key words
    2. What are the main ideas?
    3. What is the writing trying to accomplish?
    4. How does this reading connect to the course I'm taking?
    5. Then, skim quickly through the whole text
  • Reading
    1. If I encounter a confusing paragraph, stop and try to work out what the author is saying
    2. Take notes while reading
    3. Write down my reactions to the argument
  • Reviewing
    1. Stop reading and recall what I just read
    2. Repetition needs to happen in fairly quick succession after I first learn new material
    3. Improve concentration by limiting distractions
  • Questions of analysis
    1. How is the argument designed?
    2. What choices did the author make in designing the argument?
    3. Why did she make those choices?
  • When we recognize an argument's genre, we know its purpose
  • Context: when and where was it written?
  • Reading a scholarly statement
    1. Identify the Catalyst
    2. Identify the Central Claim
    3. Identify the Support
    4. Identify the Linkages
    5. Identify the Implications
  • when analyzing visual arguments, it is useful to being with the basic elements of the rhetorical situation
  • when responding to an argument, we agree or disagree in order to extend the argument and contribute something new
  • the Believing and Doubting Game can help design an argument
  • "minding the gap" means watching for logical holes, missing examples, discrepancies, questions
  • we can't enter scholarly conversations until we're familiar with what other have said and how and why they've said it

Chapter 4 Notes

  • starting with sources helps us
    1. verify whether or not work will yield something new
    2. begin collecting info to answer our research questions
    3. provide context for our investigation by relating our study to another scholar's work
    4. borrow methods of investigation or theories that worked for other scholars
    5. identify views, assumption, or conclusions to build on or diverge from
  • finding sources first helps us explain how our approach is different
  • scholars combine a research paper and a persuasive paper like this:
    1. Begin with a very specific problem or question
    2. Review scholarly publications
    3. Design and conduct some kind of investigation
    4. Report results of the research
  • writing typically follows research
  • why teachers dislike Wikipedia
    1. Stability
    2. Credibility
    3. Reliability
  • credibility depends on the particular audience and situation
  • How do we find credible scholarly sources?
    1. Ask other scholars
    2. Explore a research database
    3. Search online
  • Big topics need big research containers
  • Summarize:
    1. Read the text
    2. Create a "reverse outline" or schematic, of the text's layout
    3. Select the most relevant points
    4. Write a summary
    5. Revise the summary
  • Paraphrase:
    1. Read carefully
    2. Think about what it's saying
    3. Rewrite the gist of what the source says
    4. Double check the original
    5. Cite the author
  • take good notes
  • keep meticulous records
  • Generate ideas by:
    1. Play the believing and doubting game
    2. Find a source with which you strongly disagree
    3. Create a table that compares and contrasts your sources
    4. Pair two sources in conversation with each other
    5. Look at one source through the "lens" of another source

Chapter 5 Notes

  • How to develop and argument that other scholars don't already know
    1. Keep reading
    2. Apply your perspectives
    3. Make your own luck
    4. Challenge yourself
    5. Talk with others
    6. Try free writing
  • Develop a list of questions that I should ask about my topic
  • It is a good question if it is Challenging, Compelling, and Controversial
  • Dig narrow and deep, rather than broad and shallow
  • I can find the strongest thesis by:
    1. investigating a controversy thoroughly to identify the best questions that people haven't answered fully yet
    2. selecting challenging, compelling, and controversial questions
    3. focusing on the later controversy categories
  • Scholar's thesis ultimately evolves
  • Settling on a thesis before writing closes off opportunities to learn
  • Writing an evolving thesis advantages:
    1. To show readers your evolving thoughts
    2. To build a complicated argument
    3. To develop a controversial argument
    4. To keep the reader interested or surprised
  • Cliched arguments restate common wisdom or rely on an over used idea
  • "Interesting" arguments essentially state that a problem or concept is interesting
  • We aim for thesis statements that are both proactive and clear

Chapter 6 Notes

  • Credibility comes from three sources
    1. Verification
    2. Reputation
    3. Presentation
  • Audiences respond to evidence more reliably than they respond to credible and emotional appeals
  • Linkages provide the bridge that connects the claim with the evidence
  • Linkages is important to help readers see the logical pathway that guides our thinking
  • Examples of linkages:
    1. The fact that the partners trusted me to preserve client confidentiality demonstrates that I am reliable, honest, and responsible.
    2. ..which shows that I am articulate and comfortable speaking in public.
    3. These assignments developed my ability to work independently and as a part of a team, showing that I am both a self-starter and a collaborator.
    4. My self-reliance and my ability to handle adversity blossomed… which required me to manage my own time, adapt to a new culture, and live independently.
  • Apprentice scholars rely on "library research", scholarly arguments become more interesting when we collect evidence for ourselves.* Research methods:
    1. Interviews
    2. Surveys
    3. Observations
  • Charts to suit the message we want to present:
    1. Line charts: show the relationship between two variables
    2. Pie charts: show relationships among elements of a whole throughout percentages and proportionality
    3. Bubble charts: allow writers to illustrate three dimensions of data
  • Your claim can only be as strong as your evidence
  • Narrating:
    1. You can't forget the audience
    2. You need evidence

Chapter 7 Notes

  • Arguments typically break down in one of three main ways:
    1. reasoning or logic (activated by evidence)
    2. credibility (built with verification, reputation, or presentation)
    3. emotion (evoked by illustrations)
  • "errors" in thinking can be categorized as various kinds of fallacies
  • Fallacies do not build the best possible case for reaching a conclusion
  • A qualification is a stated restriction that limits a claim's strength
  • Qualify claims
    1. Weaken the verb
    2. Narrow the subject
    3. Limit the object
    4. Add support
  • Correlation vs. Causation - confuses correlation with causation
  • Changing the subject - intentionally introduces information that's only weakly related to the conclusion
  • Straw Man arguments - oversimplified, exaggerated, or simply inaccurate versions of opposing arguments
  • fallacies aren't necessarily false
  • Anticipate Objections
    1. Walk in the reader's shoes
    2. Identify the potential controversies
    3. Play the Devil's (or the Angel's) Advocate
  • Respond to Objections
    1. We can concede
    2. We can refute
  • Elaborate to fill gaps
    1. Incorporate more examples
    2. Respond to more objections
    3. Relate the argument to real-life contexts
    4. Discuss the larger implications of your argument
    5. Make connections to other related issues

Chapter 8 Notes

  • Organizing – put everything in it’s place for a reason
  • What’s my purpose?
  • What kind of audience will read this?
  • How are the arguments that I’ve read in this discipline typically organized?
  • How will I organize and present my work?
  • Techniques for organizing thoughts:
    1. Visualize your organization
    2. Experiment with maps, graphics, and software
    3. Create a reverse outline
  • Scholarly moves:
    1. Move 1: Start with What Others Have Said – scholars rarely assert their own position before they’ve first acknowledged what others have said
    2. Move 2: Highlight Agreement before Disagreement
    3. Move 3: Put Your Best Foot Forward
  • Add transitions to tell readers:
    1. what’s coming next
    2. how ideas are connected
    3. when a change in subject or tone will occur
    4. how to interpret the argument
  • Structure your writing process
    1. Break the assignment into a series of manageable tasks; then assign a deadline for each task
    2. Break a long assignment into chunks
    3. Get feedback along the way
    4. Don’t insist on following a fixed or linear plan

Chapter 9 Notes

  • For scholars, nearly every paper is a research paper
  • Write with integrity - copying from others denies you the opportunity to learn
  • Always ask your instructor, in advance, about what kinds of collaboration she allows
  • You can't learn something new if you don't do the work
  • Tips for avoiding plagiarism
    1. Get to know your honor code
    2. As you read, pay careful attention to how writer use their sources
    3. Maintain careful notes as you read and conduct research
    4. Don't be tempted to write your paper and then go back to fill in the citations
    5. Don't procrastinate
  • Important to frame quotations with:
    1. an introduction
    2. an explanation
  • Instead of quoting and moving on, elaborate in the following ways:
    1. Interpret the source
    2. Explain how the source relates to our argument
    3. Tell the readers what makes the quotation significant
    4. Consider ways to make a source our own
  • Paraphrasing:
    1. Original text: "This may seem odd, but schools typically do not allow students to recycle papers. For example, you probably cannot dust off a paper you wrote in high schoolhowever long ago that wasfor use in a college class."
    2. Proper paraphrase: According to Schick and Schubert, colleges may consider resubmitting old assignments to be a kind of plagiarism (193).
    3. Proper paraphrase with quotation: Writing scholars Schick and Schubert warn students not to "recycle papers" from high school for college classes (193).
    4. Patchwriting: It might seem weird, but schools typically prohibit students form reusing papers. You cannot hand in an old paper from high school in your college class.
  • Scholars value accurate citations because they illustrate the genealogy of our work.
  • When to cite:
    1. Always cite quotations and paraphrases
    2. Cite summaries
    3. Cite statistics, dates, and other details
  • A bibliographic citation includes everything that a reader would need to know to find the exact source that you used
  • In-text citations appear right next to where you summarize, paraphrase, or quote from your source
  • Keep track of whatever details you or your reader would need to retrace your steps to find each source again

Chapter 10 Notes

  • writing is a series of strategic choices
  • write compelling prose that cannot possibly be misunderstood
  • Reasons not to worry until the ideas are carved out:
    1. Perfectionism can cause writer's block
    2. Polishing can waste time and energy
    3. Editing while drafting is less effective
  • errors add confusion
  • errors diminish
  • Passive voice reverses the sentence order, placing the object before the verb and the subject
  • many readers prefer active voice because it's usually clearer and easier to read
  • Figures of speech can incur some risks, such as:
    1. Reference failure
    2. Inappropriate style
    3. Misinterpretation
    4. Cliches
  • online is always public
  • audiences move quickly
  • the Web is big an noisy
  • invite a trusted friend, classmate, or writing center tutor to reader your work aloud
  • technology can help with editing, too
  • think carefully before you take your word processor's advice
  • be very careful with your work processor's thesaurus
  • use the "find" function
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