Notes

Chapter 1

  • we communicate more with eachother than ancestors
  • writing needs a purpose, audience, and context
  • skills developed in college carry over to our futures
  • learn from well educated people
    • carefully make decisions and don't rush
    • have support for conclusions
    • everyone has limited perspective
  • knowledge, practice, feedback, and motivation are required to develop writing skills
  • adapt writing process to the situation
  • discovery, drafting, revision, editing
  • poor writing is associated with poor thinking
  • argument: explain what and why
    • have real purposes based in problems
    • have specific audience
    • belong to something larger
    • pursue ideal purposes
  • rhetoric: how persuasion and communication work
  • pay attention to content, author, audience, and purpose
  • rhetorical situation: writer, audience, context
  • ask yourself: who, what, when, where, why, how
  • write with purpose
    • analyze
    • evaluate or critique
    • interpret
  • overexplain

Chapter 2

  • arguments can be defined in two different ways
    • function
      • respond to questions or problems that are significant to writers and their arguments
    • structure/form
      • 4 main elements: claim, support, linkages, explanation on why the argument matters
  • catalyst: unknown answer or unsolved problem that matters to the writer
  • arguments begin with a question and are investigated until a conclusion is made
  • find a reason to write in order to improve, make things matter
  • inquiry and discovery can help create a thesis
    • suspect, think, know
  • arguments can change how we think
  • catalyst, inquiry, argument, implications, repeat
  • thesis: built by investigation and thinking. central claim
  • support and linkages
  • [claim] because [support]
  • evidence: anything we can observe. primary source
  • verification: things we can look up, determines credibility. secondary source
  • illustration: things we can imagine. original source
  • linkages bring supports and claims together
  • reasons are debatable statements
  • effective arguments build on acceptance or agreement
  • what's assumed is greater than whats read. make up bulk of argument
  • make unstated assumption explicit
  • arguments that expect objections have a greater chance of changing people's minds
  • common mistakes
    • arguing the obvious
    • argue without support
    • supporting without arguing

Chapter 3

  • reading needs concentration, engagement, and a quiet mind
  • easy to become distracted
  • reading strategies
    • have a specific purpose
    • don't read everything the same way
    • preview, read, review
  • preview
    • scan table of contents and key words
    • skim the whole text
  • reading
    • work out confusing paragraphs
    • take notes
    • write down reactions
  • reviewing
    • stop and recall what you just read
    • repetition
    • limit distractions
  • know a text's context
  • guided reading
    • identify catalyst
    • identify central claim
    • identify support
    • identify linkages
    • identify implications

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Chapter 4

  • starting with sources helps
    • verify if our work will show something new
    • begin collecting information to answer questions
    • provide context
    • borrow methods of investigation or theories from other scholars
    • identify views, assumptions, or conclusions to build on or branch off from
  • writing that follows research
    1. begin with a specific problem or question
    2. review scholarly publications
    3. design and conduct some kind of investigation
    4. report results
  • good sources are"
    • stable
    • credible
    • reliable
  • credibility depends on the particular audience and situation
  • finding credible sources
    • ask other scholars and instructors
    • explore a research database
    • search online
  • how to summarize
    • read the text
    • create a revere ouline of the texts layouts
    • select most relevant points
    • write a summary
    • revise summary
  • how to paraphrase
    • read carefully
    • think
    • rewrite gist
    • doube check original
    • cite author
  • generate ideas using sources
    • devils advocate
    • find a source you strongly disagree with
    • compare and contrast sources
    • pair two sources in conversation with eachother
    • looks at one source through the lens of another source

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