Page 7 Notes Ch 7

Chapter Seven: What about Faults and Gaps in Arguments?

Fallacies in Arguments:
1. reasoning or logic (activated by evidence)
2. credibility (built with verification, reputation, or presentation)
3. emotion (evoked by illustration)

Errors can be categorized as various kinds of fallacies.

Weak Evidence
Arguments commonly fail when the audience does not consider the evidence that is presented. It brings upon insufficiency. Fallacies do not build the best possible case for reaching a conclusion.

Unqualified Claims
A qualification is a stated restriction that limits a claim's strength. A qualifying claim helps us avoid exaggerating arguments.

Even when there's sufficient support, the linkage between that evidence and the claim or thesis may be weak.

Correlation Vs. Causation
This is a common kind of relevance fallacy which confuses the correlation with causation.

Changing the Subject
A second type of relevance fallacy intentionally introduces information that's only weakly related to the conclusion.

Straw Man Arguments
A third kind of relevance fallacy occurs when the writers create "straw man arguments"; meaning they are oversimplified, exaggerated, or simply inaccurate versions of opposing arguments—to make alternative prespectives seem weak, foolish, and easily refutable.

Truth as Support
It is a special category of support. Truth can be tricky; those who believe will believe the argument, but of course not everyone believes the same truths.

Relying Too Much on Credibility
We often assume that many works under a reputable name is correct. Credibility is a kind of oversimplification, reputations are often inaccurate or not well deserved.

Getting Emotional
Emotions provide the least reliable but most powerful kind of support. However emotion can cloud the readers judgement and as well as your own.

The Usefulness of Fallacies
Becoming more careful about fallacies in your own arguments can also help you write more carefully. Arguments based on sound reasoning can withstand harsher scrutiny, and in most cases they help us arrive together at a more commonly acceptable answer.

Fallacies aren't necessarily false.

Anticipate and Respond to Opposing Views
Anticipate the objections, it can help fortify the arguments against those who resist.

When Responding to Objections:
1. We can concede.
2. We can refute.

Elaborate to Fill Gaps
Many gaps exist in arguments. As said there will always be room for development. As readers, we can create fills to theses gaps to discover unanswered questions, missing evidence, and places to insert our ideas.

CH 8, Notes Chapter 8

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